There is a new revision of this tutorial available for Ubuntu 14.10 (Utopic Unicorn).

The Perfect Desktop - Ubuntu 14.04 LTS (Trusty Tahr)

This tutorial shows how you can set up an Ubuntu 14.04LTS (Trusty Tahr) desktop that is a full-fledged replacement for a Windows desktop, i.e. that has all the software that people need to do the things they do on their Windows desktops. The advantages are clear: you get a secure system without DRM restrictions that works even on old hardware, and the best thing is: all software comes free of charge.

Ubuntu 14.04 will by default start the new Unity ver 7.2 desktop which requires that your hardware supports 3D acceleration,however you can also switch to Ubuntu 2D mode in the log on screen. If your hardware does not support 3D acceleration or you don't like Unity,you can still switch back to 2D version or download one of the countless alternatives.

I want to say first that this is not the only way of setting up such a system. There are many ways of achieving this goal but this is the way I take. I do not issue any guarantee that this will work for you!

 

1 Preliminary Note

To fully replace a Windows desktop, I want the Ubuntu desktop to have the following software installed:

Graphics:

  • The GIMP - free software replacement for Adobe Photoshop
  • Shotwell Photo Manager - full-featured personal photo management application for the GNOME desktop

Internet:

  • Firefox
  • Opera
  • Chromium - Google's open-source browser
  • Flash Player 11
  • FileZilla - multithreaded FTP client
  • Thunderbird - email and news client
  • Evolution - combines e-mail, calendar, address book, and task list management functions
  • aMule - P2P file sharing application
  • Transmission BitTorrent Client - Bittorrent client
  • Vuze - Java Bittorrent client
  • Empathy IM Client - multi-platform instant messaging client
  • Skype
  • Google Earth
  • Xchat IRC - IRC client
  • Gwibber Social Client - open-source micro-blogging client (Twitter, Facebook, etc.)
  • Pidgin  IM Client - Multi-platform instant messaging client
  • LibreOffice Writer - replacement for Microsoft Word
  • LibreOffice Calc - replacement for Microsoft Excel
  • Adobe Reader
  • GnuCash - double-entry book-keeping personal finance system, similar to Quicken
  • Scribus - open source desktop publishing (DTP) application

Sound & Video:

  • Amarok - audio player
  • Audacity - free, open source, cross platform digital audio editor
  • Banshee - audio player, can encode/decode various formats and synchronize music with Apple iPods
  • MPlayer - media player (video/audio), supports WMA
  • Rhythmbox Music Player - audio player, similar to Apple's iTunes, with support for iPods
  • gtkPod - software similar to Apple's iTunes, supports iPod, iPod nano, iPod shuffle, iPod photo, and iPod mini
  • XMMS - audio player similar to Winamp
  • dvd::rip - full featured DVD copy program
  • Kino - free digital video editor
  • Sound Juicer CD Extractor - CD ripping tool, supports various audio codecs
  • VLC Media Player - media player (video/audio)
  • RealPlayer - media player (available for i386 systems only)
  • Totem - media player (video/audio)
  • Xine - media player, supports various formats; can play DVDs
  • Brasero - CD/DVD burning program
  • K3B - CD/DVD burning program
  • Multimedia Codecs

Programming:

  • KompoZer - WYSIWYG HTML editor, similar to Macromedia Dreamweaver, but not as feature-rich (yet)
  • Bluefish - text editor, suitable for many programming and markup languages
  • Eclipse - Extensible Tool Platform and Java IDE

Other:

  • VirtualBox OSE - lets you run your old Windows desktop as a virtual machine under your Linux desktop, so you don't have to entirelyabandon Windows
  • TrueType fonts
  • Java
  • Read-/Write support for NTFS partitions
  • Synaptic Package Manager
  • gdebi Package Installer

Lots of our desired applications are available in the Ubunturepositories, and some of these applications have been contributed by the Ubuntu community.

As you might have noticed, a few applications are redundant, forexample there are two CD/DVD burning applications in my list (Brasero, K3B). If you know which one you like best, you obviously don't need toinstall the other applications, however if you like choice, then of course you can install both. The same goes for music players likeAmarok, Banshee, Rhythmbox, XMMS or browsers (Firefox, Opera, Chromium).

I will use the username howtoforge in this tutorial. Please replace it with your own username.

 

2 Installing The Base System

The installation of the base system is easy as 1-2-3 because the Ubuntu installer doesn't offer a lot of options to choose from, so you cannot go wrong.

Download the Ubuntu 14.04 desktop edition iso image from http://www.ubuntu.com/download/ubuntu/download, burn it onto a CD, and boot your computer from it:


Select your language and click on the Install Ubuntu button to start the installation:


On the next screen you see a few requirements for the Ubuntu 14.04 installation (the system should have at least  GB available drive space and should be connected to the Internet). Please check the Download updates while installing and Install this third-party software (this will install the software necessary to process Flash, MP3, and other mediafiles) checkboxes and click on Continue:


Now we come to the partitioning of our hard disk. Usually Erase disk and install Ubuntu is a good choice, unless you need custom partitions and know what you're doing. Erase disk and install Ubuntu will create one big / partition for us:


Select the hard drive that you want to use for the Ubuntu installation. Then choose your time zone:



Change the keyboard layout, if necessary:


Type in your real name, your desired username along with a password,and click on Continue:



Afterwards, Ubuntu is being installed. This can take a few minutes,so be patient:


After the installation, you will be asked to reboot the system.Click on Restart Now:


At the end of the shutdown process, you are asked to remove the Ubuntu installation CD from the CD drive. Please do this now and press ENTER.


Your new Ubuntu system starts. Log into the desktop with the username and password you provided during the installation:


This is how your new Ubuntu Unity desktop looks:


Now the base system is ready to be used.

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7 Comment(s)

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Comments

From: Innocent Bystander

Sorry but Ubuntu is not a perfect desktop at all. Especially the 14.04 version. The number of plug-in which are enabled by default in the dash is terrifying. Ubuntu is more and more bloated and filled with craps which destroy the user experience.

 My wife had always used Ubuntu. When I updated to v14.04, I had full of problems. First I removed the craps, then suddenly the theme disappears (no windows, no buttons). After a few hours, I decided it was enough and I switched to XFCE. Xububtu 14.04 for now. Strangely enough my wife likes it better. Conclusion, we are 3 with totally different skills. We had all tried Ubuntu for  more than a reasonable period. And we all hate it.

From: asdasfasd

Why would I want several programs that do the same thing? Thunderbird and Evolution? plz, stop with the clickbaits.

From: admin

Try out which one fits best you you personally. If you have the choice of several great free programs, why not try them out to find your personal favorite.

From: Siddharth

Hi

Have you tried Sublime Text 3. Its still in beta but I find it better than Bluefish. Do let me know your views on this

From: JoelK

Since Ubuntu 12.10 Unity 2D is no longer available. So in 14.04 you can not switch to 2D mode in the log on screen and you can't install the 2D version. References: http://www.geek.com/news/canonical-dumps-unity-2d-for-ubuntu-12-10-1510213/, http://www.omgubuntu.co.uk/2012/08/unity-2d-removed-from-ubuntu-12-10.

From: HansW

Hi. I have Ubuntu 14.04 and it is quite ok considering that it is FREE. Sure there are many problems, for example when adding programs you must know what to do, because there are lots of different downloading places and also many different installing instructions in the iternet. Just a while ago I had to reinstall ubuntu because it complitely halted after I had installed xscreensaver with bad installing instructions as I later found out. There is no perfect operating system and never will be.

From: mapic

Very informative and very useful for us Ubuntu noobs. Would be wonderful to have suggestions oh how to backup/ restore our new Ubuntu  system. Did I miss that?