How to Install and Use MongoDB on Ubuntu 20.04

MongoDB is an open-source and cross-platform document-oriented database system written in C++. It stores data in collections of JSON-like, flexible documents and used to create powerful websites and applications. Due to its scalability and high performance, it is used for building modern applications that require powerful, mission-critical and high-availability databases.

In this tutorial, we will explain how to install and use MongoDB database system on Ubuntu 20.04 server.

Prerequisites

  • A server running Ubuntu 20.04.
  • A root password is configured on your server.

Install MongoDB

By default, the latest version of MongoDB is not available in the Ubuntu 20.04 default repository. So you will need to add the official MongoDB repository in your system.

First, install Gnupg package with the following command:

apt-get install gnupg -y

Next, download and add the MongoDB GPG key with the following command:

wget -qO - https://www.mongodb.org/static/pgp/server-4.2.asc | apt-key add -

Next, add the MongoDB repository with the following command:

echo "deb [ arch=amd64,arm64 ] https://repo.mongodb.org/apt/ubuntu bionic/mongodb-org/4.2 multiverse" | tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mongodb-org-4.2.list

Next, update the repository and install the MongoDB with the following command:

apt-get update -y
apt-get install mongodb-org -y

Once the installation has been completed, start the MongoDB service and enable it to start at reboot with the following command:

systemctl start mongod
systemctl enable mongod

You can now check the status of the MongoDB service with the following command:

systemctl status mongod

You should get the following output:

? mongod.service - MongoDB Database Server
     Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/mongod.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
     Active: active (running) since Fri 2020-05-15 05:30:39 UTC; 18s ago
       Docs: https://docs.mongodb.org/manual
   Main PID: 106996 (mongod)
     Memory: 76.0M
     CGroup: /system.slice/mongod.service
             ??106996 /usr/bin/mongod --config /etc/mongod.conf

May 15 05:30:39 ubuntu2004 systemd[1]: Started MongoDB Database Server.
May 15 05:30:48 ubuntu2004 systemd[1]: /lib/systemd/system/mongod.service:11: PIDFile= references a path below legacy directory /var/run/, upd>
lines 1-11/11 (END)

You can also verify the MongoDB version and the server address using the following command:

mongo --eval 'db.runCommand({ connectionStatus: 1 })'

You should get the following output:

MongoDB shell version v4.2.6
connecting to: mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017/?compressors=disabled&gssapiServiceName=mongodb
Implicit session: session { "id" : UUID("e1575445-f441-4b30-a5d7-4cf68852e68f") }
MongoDB server version: 4.2.6
{
	"authInfo" : {
		"authenticatedUsers" : [ ],
		"authenticatedUserRoles" : [ ]
	},
	"ok" : 1  
}

Configure MongoDB

MongoDB default configuration file is located at /etc/mongod.conf. By default, each user will have access to all databases and perform any action. For production environments, it is recommended to enable the MongoDB authentication.

You can do it by editing the file /etc/mongod.conf:

nano /etc/mongod.conf

Add the following lines:

security:
  authorization: enabled

Save and close the file then restart the MongoDB service to apply the changes:

systemctl restart mongod

Create MongoDB Admin User

After enabling the MongoDB authentication, you will need to create an admin user to access and manage the MongoDB database.

First, access the MongoDB console with the following command:

mongo

You should see the following output:

MongoDB shell version v4.2.6
connecting to: mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017/?compressors=disabled&gssapiServiceName=mongodb
Implicit session: session { "id" : UUID("9ee0ea0c-cf95-4b83-9e88-00dc3a61e0a6") }
MongoDB server version: 4.2.6
Welcome to the MongoDB shell.
For interactive help, type "help".
For more comprehensive documentation, see
	http://docs.mongodb.org/
Questions? Try the support group
	http://groups.google.com/group/mongodb-user

Next, connect to the admin database with the following command:

> use admin

You should see the following output:

switched to db admin

Next, create a new admin user and set the password with the following command:

> db.createUser( { user: "admin", pwd: "password", roles: [ { role: "userAdminAnyDatabase", db: "admin" } ] } )

You should get the following output:

Successfully added user: {
	"user" : "admin",
	"roles" : [
		{
			"role" : "userAdminAnyDatabase",
			"db" : "admin"
		}
	]
}

Next, exit from the MongoDB console with the following command:

> quit()

Verify MongoDB Authentication

At this point, the MongoDB is configured with authentication.

Now, try to connect to MongoDB using the user which you have created earlier:

mongo -u admin -p --authenticationDatabase admin

You will be asked to provide the password as shown below:

MongoDB shell version v4.2.6
Enter password: 

Provide your admin password and hit Enter. You should see the following output:

connecting to: mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017/?authSource=admin&compressors=disabled&gssapiServiceName=mongodb
Implicit session: session { "id" : UUID("00d6d1eb-d1c3-41ea-89c7-d46ec6d17bee") }
MongoDB server version: 4.2.6

Now, change the database to admin with the following command:

> use admin

You should see the following output:

switched to db admin

Now, list the users with the following command:

> show users

You should get the following output:

{
	"_id" : "admin.admin",
	"userId" : UUID("65907484-9d67-4e6e-bb88-a6666310e963"),
	"user" : "admin",
	"db" : "admin",
	"roles" : [
		{
			"role" : "userAdminAnyDatabase",
			"db" : "admin"
		}
	],
	"mechanisms" : [
		"SCRAM-SHA-1",
		"SCRAM-SHA-256"
	]
}
> 

Conclusion

In the above guide, you learned how to install and configure MongoDB on Ubuntu 20.04 server. For more information, you can visit the MongoDB documentation at Mongo Doc.

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6 Comment(s)

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Comments

By: Doris at: 2020-05-24 14:29:27

Thanks for this spot on tutorial! Every step worked perfectly, and I understood everything!

By: csl at: 2020-05-26 23:40:39

many thanks.

By: Dmitriy at: 2020-06-10 22:55:23

Thank you!

By: Charlie at: 2020-06-20 18:21:44

Thank you very mutch for this concise tutorial. It is just perfect. I will recommand your page when ever it is possible.

By: Valery at: 2020-06-24 08:38:58

the guide is not yet complete:

 

% sudo systemctl start mongod

Failed to start mongod.service: Unit mongod.service not found

 

By: Vladyslav at: 2020-06-24 09:09:41

Thank you very much. It helped.