Virtual Hosting With PureFTPd And MySQL (Incl. Quota And Bandwidth Management) On OpenSUSE 13.2

Version 1.0
Author: Srijan Kishore <s [dot] kishore [at] ispconfig [dot] org>
Follow howtoforge on Twitter
Last edited 19/Nov/2014

This document describes how to install a PureFTPd server that uses virtual users from a MySQL database instead of real system users. This is much more performant and allows to have thousands of ftp users on a single machine. In addition to that I will show the use of quota and upload/download bandwidth limits with this setup. Passwords will be stored encrypted as MD5 strings in the database.

For the administration of the MySQL database you can use web based tools like phpMyAdmin which will also be installed in this howto. phpMyAdmin is a comfortable graphical interface which means you do not have to mess around with the command line.

This document comes without warranty of any kind! I want to say that this is not the only way of setting up such a system. There are many ways of achieving this goal but this is the way I take.

 

1 Preliminary Note

In this tutorial I use the hostname server1.example.com with the IP address 192.168.0.100. These settings might differ for you, so you have to replace them where appropriate. You must have a basic Open Suse installation before moving ahead as described in this tutorial.

2 Install MariaDB, Apache2, And phpMyAdmin

MariaDB, Apache and the PHP modules needed by phpMyAdmin can be installed as follows:

zypper install mariadb mariadb-client apache2 apache2-mod_php5 php5-mysql php5-mcrypt php5-mbstring php5-gd

server1:~ # zypper install mariadb mariadb-client apache2 apache2-mod_php5 php5-mysql php5-mcrypt php5-mbstring php5-gd
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...

Problem: php5-mysql-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64 requires php5 = 5.6.1, but this requirement cannot be provided
  uninstallable providers: php5-5.6.1-1.1.x86_64[openSUSE-13.2-0]
                   php5-5.6.1-1.1.i586[repo-oss]
                   php5-5.6.1-1.1.x86_64[repo-oss]
                   php5-5.6.1-4.1.i586[repo-update]
                   php5-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64[repo-update]
 Solution 1: Following actions will be done:
  do not install php5-mysql-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64
  do not install php5-mcrypt-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64
  do not install php5-gd-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64
 Solution 2: Following actions will be done:
  do not install php5-mcrypt-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64
  do not install apache2-mod_php5-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64
  do not install php5-gd-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64
  do not install php5-mbstring-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64
  do not install php5-mysql-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64
 Solution 3: Following actions will be done:
  do not install php5-mcrypt-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64
  do not install apache2-mod_php5-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64
  do not install php5-gd-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64
  do not install php5-mbstring-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64
 Solution 4: Following actions will be done:
  do not install php5-mcrypt-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64
  do not install apache2-mod_php5-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64
  do not install php5-gd-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64
  do not install php5-mbstring-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64
 Solution 5: Following actions will be done:
  do not install php5-mcrypt-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64
  do not install apache2-mod_php5-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64
  do not install php5-gd-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64
  do not install php5-mbstring-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64
 Solution 6: Following actions will be done:
  do not install php5-mcrypt-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64
  do not install apache2-mod_php5-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64
  do not install php5-gd-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64
  do not install php5-mbstring-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64
 Solution 7: deinstallation of patterns-openSUSE-minimal_base-conflicts-20141007-2.1.x86_64
 Solution 8: break php5-mysql-5.6.1-4.1.x86_64 by ignoring some of its dependencies

Choose from above solutions by number or cancel [1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/c] (c): <--7

Then we create the system startup links for MySQL (so that MySQL starts automatically whenever the system boots) and start the MySQL server:

systemctl enable mysql.service
systemctl start mysql.service

To secure the MySQL installation, run:

mysql_secure_installation

server1:~ # mysql_secure_installation
/usr/bin/mysql_secure_installation: line 379: find_mysql_client: command not found

NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MariaDB
      SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE!  PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY!

In order to log into MariaDB to secure it, we'll need the current
password for the root user.  If you've just installed MariaDB, and
you haven't set the root password yet, the password will be blank,
so you should just press enter here.

Enter current password for root (enter for none):
OK, successfully used password, moving on...

Setting the root password ensures that nobody can log into the MariaDB
root user without the proper authorisation.

Set root password? [Y/n] <--ENTER
New password: <--mariadbpassword
Re-enter new password: <--mariadbpassword
Password updated successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
 ... Success!


By default, a MariaDB installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MariaDB without having to have a user account created for
them.  This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother.  You should remove them before moving into a
production environment.

Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] <--ENTER
 ... Success!

Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'.  This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] <--ENTER
 ... Success!

By default, MariaDB comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can
access.  This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.

Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] <--ENTER
 - Dropping test database...
 ... Success!
 - Removing privileges on test database...
 ... Success!

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] <--ENTER
 ... Success!

Cleaning up...

All done!  If you've completed all of the above steps, your MariaDB
installation should now be secure.

Thanks for using MariaDB!
server1:~ #

Now your MySQL setup should be secured.

Then we create the system startup links for Apache (so that it starts automatically whenever the system boots) and start it:

systemctl enable apache2.service
systemctl start apache2.service

phpMyAdmin can be installed as follows:

zypper install phpmyadmin

To make sure that we can access phpMyAdmin edit the file as follows:

vi /etc/apache2/conf.d/phpMyAdmin.conf

Add the alias as follows:

Alias /phpMyAdmin /srv/www/htdocs/phpMyAdmin
Alias /phpmyadmin /srv/www/htdocs/phpMyAdmin
[...]

Before starting apache we need to follow the link & make changes in httpd.conf

vi /etc/apache2/httpd.conf

Note: if file values are different then change the value as follows:

Comment these lines & add these lines

#<Directory />
#    Options None
   AllowOverride None
   Order deny,allow
#   Deny from all
#</Directory>

<Directory />
Options None
AllowOverride None
Require all denied
</Directory>

Next we need to make the config file for the phpmyadmin as 

cd /srv/www/htdocs/phpMyAdmin
cp config.sample.inc.php config.inc.php

In the config file, you can see that phpmyadmin expects a database named  "phpmyadmin" which contains the pma tables:

[...]
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['pmadb'] = 'phpmyadmin';
[...]

So we create one:

echo "create database phpmyadmin;" | mysql -u root -p 'mariadbpassword'

and load the tabes from phpmyadmin docs.

mysql -u root -p 'mariadbpassword' < /usr/share/doc/packages/phpMyAdmin/examples/create_tables.sql

Now start the Apache service

systemctl enable apache2.service
systemctl restart apache2.service

Now we can access the phpmyadmin at http://192.168.0.100/phpmyadmin Or at http://server1.example.com


3 Install PureFTPd With MySQL Support

OpenSUSE's PureFTPd package supports various backends, such as MySQL, PostgreSQL, LDAP, etc. Therefore, all we have to do is install the normal PureFTPd package:

 zypper install pure-ftpd

Then we create an ftp group (ftpgroup) and user (ftpuser) that all our virtual users will be mapped to. Replace the group- and userid 2001 with a number that is free on your system:

groupadd -g 2001 ftpgroup
useradd -u 2001 -s /bin/false -d /bin/null -c "pureftpd user" -g ftpgroup ftpuser

4 Create The MySQL Database For PureFTPd

Now we create a database called pureftpd and a MySQL user named pureftpd which the PureFTPd daemon will use later on to connect to the pureftpd database:

mysql -u root -p

CREATE DATABASE pureftpd;
GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, CREATE, DROP ON pureftpd.* TO 'pureftpd'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'ftpdpass';
GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, CREATE, DROP ON pureftpd.* TO 'pureftpd'@'localhost.localdomain' IDENTIFIED BY 'ftpdpass';
FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

Replace the string ftpdpass with whatever password you want to use for the MySQL user pureftpd. Still on the MySQL shell, we create the database table we need (yes, there is only one table!):

USE pureftpd;

CREATE TABLE `ftpd` (
User varchar(16) NOT NULL default '',
status enum('0','1') NOT NULL default '0',
Password varchar(64) NOT NULL default '',
Uid varchar(11) NOT NULL default '-1',
Gid varchar(11) NOT NULL default '-1',
Dir varchar(128) NOT NULL default '',
ULBandwidth smallint(5) NOT NULL default '0',
DLBandwidth smallint(5) NOT NULL default '0',
comment tinytext NOT NULL,
ipaccess varchar(15) NOT NULL default '*',
QuotaSize smallint(5) NOT NULL default '0',
QuotaFiles int(11) NOT NULL default 0,
PRIMARY KEY (User),
UNIQUE KEY User (User)
)  ENGINE=MyISAM;

quit;

You can now access phpMyAdmin under http://server1.example.com/phpMyAdmin/ (you can also use the IP address instead of server1.example.com) in a browser and log in as the user pureftpd. Then you can have a look at the database. Later on you can use phpMyAdmin to administrate your PureFTPd server.


5 Configure PureFTPd

Edit /etc/pure-ftpd/pure-ftpd.conf and make sure that the ChrootEveryone, AnonymousOnly, MySQLConfigFile, and CreateHomeDir lines are enabled and look like this:

vi /etc/pure-ftpd/pure-ftpd.conf

[...]
ChrootEveryone              yes
[...]
AnonymousOnly               no
[...]
MySQLConfigFile              /etc/pure-ftpd/pureftpd-mysql.conf
[...]
CreateHomeDir               yes
[...]

The ChrootEveryone setting will make PureFTPd chroot every virtual user in his home directory so he will not be able to browse directories and files outside his home directory. The CreateHomeDir line will make PureFTPd create a user's home directory when the user logs in and the home directory does not exist yet. AnonymousOnly must be set to no because otherwise only anonymous FTP sessions will be allowed.

Then we create /edit /etc/pure-ftpd/pureftpd-mysql.conf. It should look like this:

vi /etc/pure-ftpd/pureftpd-mysql.conf

MYSQLSocket      /var/run/mysql/mysql.sock
#MYSQLServer     localhost
#MYSQLPort       3306
MYSQLUser       pureftpd
MYSQLPassword   ftpdpass
MYSQLDatabase   pureftpd
#MYSQLCrypt md5, cleartext, crypt() or password() - md5 is VERY RECOMMENDABLE uppon cleartext
MYSQLCrypt      md5
MYSQLGetPW      SELECT Password FROM ftpd WHERE User="\L" AND status="1" AND (ipaccess = "*" OR ipaccess LIKE "\R")
MYSQLGetUID     SELECT Uid FROM ftpd WHERE User="\L" AND status="1" AND (ipaccess = "*" OR ipaccess LIKE "\R")
MYSQLGetGID     SELECT Gid FROM ftpd WHERE User="\L"AND status="1" AND (ipaccess = "*" OR ipaccess LIKE "\R")
MYSQLGetDir     SELECT Dir FROM ftpd WHERE User="\L"AND status="1" AND (ipaccess = "*" OR ipaccess LIKE "\R")
MySQLGetBandwidthUL SELECT ULBandwidth FROM ftpd WHERE User="\L"AND status="1" AND (ipaccess = "*" OR ipaccess LIKE "\R")
MySQLGetBandwidthDL SELECT DLBandwidth FROM ftpd WHERE User="\L"AND status="1" AND (ipaccess = "*" OR ipaccess LIKE "\R")
MySQLGetQTASZ   SELECT QuotaSize FROM ftpd WHERE User="\L"AND status="1" AND (ipaccess = "*" OR ipaccess LIKE "\R")
MySQLGetQTAFS   SELECT QuotaFiles FROM ftpd WHERE User="\L"AND status="1" AND (ipaccess = "*" OR ipaccess LIKE "\R")

Make sure that you replace the string ftpdpass with the real password for the MySQL user pureftpd in the line MYSQLPassword! Please note that we use md5 as MYSQLCrypt method, which means we will store the users' passwords as an MD5 string in the database which is far more secure than using plain text passwords!

Now we create the system startup links for PureFTPd and start it:

systemctl enable pure-ftpd
systemctl start pure-ftpd

6 Populate The Database And Test

To populate the database you can use the MySQL shell:

mysql -u root -p

USE pureftpd;

Now we create the user exampleuser with the status 1 (which means his ftp account is active), the password secret (which will be stored encrypted using MySQL's MD5 function), the UID and GID 2001 (use the userid and groupid of the user/group you created at the end of step two!), the home directory /home/www.example.com, an upload and download bandwidth of 100 KB/sec. (kilobytes per second), and a quota of 50 MB:

INSERT INTO `ftpd` (`User`, `status`, `Password`, `Uid`, `Gid`, `Dir`, `ULBandwidth`, `DLBandwidth`, `comment`, `ipaccess`, `QuotaSize`, `QuotaFiles`) VALUES ('exampleuser', '1', MD5('secret'), '2001', '2001', '/home/www.example.com', '100', '100', '', '*', '50', '0');

quit;

Now open your FTP client program on your work station (something like WS_FTP or SmartFTP if you are on a Windows system or gFTP on a Linux desktop) and try to connect. As hostname you use server1.example.com (or the IP address of the system), the username is exampleuser, and the password is secret.

If you are able to connect - congratulations! If not, something went wrong.

Now, if you run

ls -l /home/

server1:~ # ls -l /home/
total 0
drwxr-xr-x 1 administrator users    128 Nov  7 14:30 administrator
drwxr-xr-x 1 ftpuser       ftpgroup  18 Nov 19 14:32 www.example.com
server1:~ #

you should see that the directory /home/www.example.com (exampleuser's home directory) has been created automatically, and it is owned by ftpuser and ftpgroup (the user/group we created at the end of step two):

7 Database Administration

For most people it is easier if they have a graphical front-end to MySQL; therefore you can also use phpMyAdmin (in this example under http://server1.example.com/phpMyAdmin/ or http://192.168.0.100/phpMyAdmin/) to administrate the pureftpd database.



Whenever you want to create a new user, you have to create an entry in the table ftpd so I will explain the columns of this table here:

ftpd Table:

  • User: The name of the virtual PureFTPd user (e.g. exampleuser).
  • status: 0 or 1. 0 means the account is disabled, the user cannot login.
  • Password: The password of the virtual user. Make sure you use MySQL's MD5 function to save the password encrypted as an MD5 string:




  • UID: The userid of the ftp user you created at the end of step two (e.g. 2001).
  • GID: The groupid of the ftp group you created at the end of step two (e.g. 2001).
  • Dir: The home directory of the virtual PureFTPd user (e.g. /home/www.example.com). If it does not exist, it will be created when the new user logs in the first time via FTP. The virtual user will be jailed into this home directory, i.e., he cannot access other directories outside his home directory.
  • ULBandwidth: Upload bandwidth of the virtual user in KB/sec. (kilobytes per second). 0 means unlimited.
  • DLBandwidth: Download bandwidth of the virtual user in KB/sec. (kilobytes per second). 0 means unlimited.
  • comment: You can enter any comment here (e.g. for your internal administration) here. Normally you leave this field empty.
  • ipaccess: Enter IP addresses here that are allowed to connect to this FTP account. * means any IP address is allowed to connect.
  • QuotaSize: Storage space in MB (not KB, as in ULBandwidth and DLBandwidth!) the virtual user is allowed to use on the FTP server. 0 means unlimited.
  • QuotaFiles: amount of files the virtual user is allowed to save on the FTP server. 0 means unlimited.

8 Anonymous FTP

If you want to create an anonymous ftp account (an ftp account that everybody can login to without a password), you need a user and a group called ftp. Both have been created automatically when you installed the pure-ftpd package, so you don't need to create them manually. However, ftp's homedir is /srv/ftp by default, but I'd like to create the anonymous ftp directory in /home/ftp (the normal users' ftp directories are in /home as well, e.g. /home/www.example.com). But of course, you can use the /srv/ftp directory for anonymous ftp, if you prefer it.

If you want to use /home/ftp, open /etc/passwd and change the ftp user's homedir from /srv/ftp to /home/ftp (don't do this if you want to use /srv/ftp):

vi /etc/passwd

[...]
#ftp:x:40:49:FTP account:/srv/ftp:/bin/bash
ftp:x:40:49:FTP account:/home/ftp:/bin/bash
[...]

Then move /srv/ftp to /home (don't do this if you want to use /srv/ftp):

mv /srv/ftp /home

Then we create the directory /home/ftp/incoming which will allow anonymous users to upload files. We will give the /home/ftp/incoming directory permissions of 311 so that users can upload, but not see or download any files in that directory. The /home/ftp directory will have permissions of 555 which allows seeing and downloading of files:

chown ftp:nobody /home/ftp
cd /home/ftp
mkdir incoming
chown ftp:nobody incoming/
chmod 311 incoming/
cd ../
chmod 555 ftp/

  (If you want to use /srv/ftp instead, replace /home/ftp with /srv/ftp in the above commands.)

Anonymous users will be able to log in, and they will be allowed to download files from /home/ftp, but uploads will be limited to /home/ftp/incoming (and once a file is uploaded into /home/ftp/incoming, it cannot be read nor downloaded from there; the server admin has to move it into /home/ftp first to make it available to others).

Now we have to configure PureFTPd for anonymous ftp. Open /etc/pure-ftpd/pure-ftpd.conf and make sure that you have the following settings in it:

vi /etc/pure-ftpd/pure-ftpd.conf

[...]
NoAnonymous                 no

[...]
AnonymousBandwidth            8
[...]
AnonymousCantUpload         no
[...]

(The AnonymousBandwidth setting is optional - it allows you to limit upload and download bandwidths for anonymous users. 8 means 8 KB/sec. Use any value you like, or comment out the line if you don't want to limit bandwidths.)

Finally, we restart PureFTPd:

systemctl restart pure-ftpd.service

Share this page:

0 Comment(s)

Add comment