Virtual Users And Domains With Postfix, Courier And MySQL (Debian Etch) - Page 6

13 Populate The Database And Test

To populate the database you can use the MySQL shell:

mysql -u root -p
USE mail;

At least you have to create entries in the tables domains and users:

INSERT INTO `domains` (`domain`) VALUES ('example.com');
INSERT INTO `users` (`email`, `password`, `quota`) VALUES ('sales@example.com', ENCRYPT('secret'), 10485760);

(Please take care you use the ENCRYPT syntax in the second INSERT statement in order to encrypt the password!)

If you want to make entries in the other two tables, that would look like this:

INSERT INTO `forwardings` (`source`, `destination`) VALUES ('info@example.com', 'sales@example.com');
INSERT INTO `transport` (`domain`, `transport`) VALUES ('example.com', 'smtp:mail.example.com');

To leave the MySQL shell, type

quit;

For most people it is easier if they have a graphical front-end to MySQL; therefore you can also use phpMyAdmin (in this example under http://192.168.0.100/phpmyadmin/ or http://server1.example.com/phpmyadmin/) to administrate the mail database. Again, when you create a user, go sure that you use the ENCRYPT function to encrypt the password:

I do not think I have to explain the domains and users table further.

The forwardings table can have entries like the following:

source destination  
info@example.com sales@example.com Redirects emails for info@example.com to sales@example.com
@example.com thomas@example.com Creates a Catch-All account for thomas@example.com. All emails to example.com will arrive at thomas@example.com, except those that exist in the users table (i.e., if sales@example.com exists in the users table, mails to sales@example.com will still arrive at sales@example.com).
@example.com @anotherdomain.tld This redirects all emails to example.com to the same user at anotherdomain.tld. E.g., emails to thomas@example.com will be forwarded to thomas@anotherdomain.tld.
info@example.com sales@example.com, billing@anotherdomain.tld Forward emails for info@example.com to two or more email addresses. All listed email addresses under destination receive a copy of the email.

The transport table can have entries like these:

domain transport  
example.com : Delivers emails for example.com locally. This is as if this record would not exist in this table at all.
example.com smtp:mail.anotherdomain.tld Delivers all emails for example.com via smtp to the server mail.anotherdomain.com.
example.com smtp:mail.anotherdomain.tld:2025 Delivers all emails for example.com via smtp to the server mail.anotherdomain.com, but on port 2025, not 25 which is the default port for smtp.
example.com

smtp:[1.2.3.4]
smtp:[1.2.3.4]:2025
smtp:[mail.anotherdomain.tld]

The square brackets prevent Postfix from doing lookups of the MX DNS record for the address in square brackets. Makes sense for IP addresses.
.example.com smtp:mail.anotherdomain.tld Mail for any subdomain of example.com is delivered to mail.anotherdomain.tld.
* smtp:mail.anotherdomain.tld All emails are delivered to mail.anotherdomain.tld.
joe@example.com smtp:mail.anotherdomain.tld Emails for joe@example.com are delivered to mail.anotherdomain.tld.

See

man transport

for more details.

Please keep in mind that the order of entries in the transport table is important! The entries will be followed from the top to the bottom.

Important: Postfix uses a caching mechanism for the transports, therefore it might take a while until you changes in the transport table take effect. If you want them to take effect immediately, run

postfix reload

after you have made your changes in the transport table.

 

14 References

 

15 Links

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From: at: 2007-06-06 20:11:22

 Hi,

 I don't understand, why you use the smtp-PAM-Module?!

 By the way: In Debian Etch you have to activate DCC in /etc/spamassassin/v310.pre

 Regards,

Hypz 

From: at: 2008-01-29 12:11:27

VERY nice howto. It worked like a dream.
And setting up Squirrelmail for this was a breeze too. 

I encountered some problems while I followed the guide though, which I have listed in my blog @ Ronin's blog[^].

 One was a bug I encountered within Courier-Saslauthdaemon, and 2 were some banal problems with Squirrelmail. But I managed to solve them with some googling around ^^

From: Juan Carlos at: 2008-12-16 17:56:05

hello as are wanting to loguiarme in mailboxes me introduce the following error:
 
Dec 16 12:43:19 linuxdeb authdaemond: stopping authdaemond children
Dec 16 12:43:19 linuxdeb authdaemond: modules="authmyslq", daemons=5
Dec 16 12:43:19 linuxdeb authdaemond: Installing libauthmyslq
Dec 16 12:43:19 linuxdeb authdaemond: libauthmyslq.so: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory
Dec 16 12:43:46 linuxdeb courierpop3login: Connection, ip=[::ffff:127.0.0.1]
Dec 16 12:43:54 linuxdeb courierpop3login: LOGIN FAILED, user=juan, ip=[::ffff:127.0.0.1]
Dec 16 12:44:03 linuxdeb courierpop3login: LOGOUT, ip=[::ffff:127.0.0.1]
Dec 16 12:44:03 linuxdeb courierpop3login: Disconnected, ip=[::ffff:127.0.0.1]
~
 
that can be
 

From: at: 2007-06-24 18:58:29

This setup seems to be extremely insecure.

Mysql function encrypt () encrypts (on some systems, e.g. my Debian Etch) only first eight characters of a string, making hacking of a mailbox extremely easy. For example, passwords

12345678LHKuhlhKJgkZgHklu

and

12345678

both allow the user to log in (think about people who use password5468d - AOL had similar problem recently).

From: at: 2007-06-24 19:10:25

To fix the security problem I mentioned above, you may possibly use other cyphers, I found this text:

 

User question/comment: I thought MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD only handles the ENCRYPT() function in stead of MD5() (see postfix-mysql setup). Correct me when I'm wrong

User question/comment: MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD only specifies the name of database field,
it has nothing to do with crypt format. authlib
can automatically detect several different formats of password hash, please refer to cryptpassword.c
inside courier authlib source code for more info. Basically it checks if the first
few characters of password hash is:

  • "$1$": password is MD5 format password used by all Linux systems.
  • "{MD5}": this is followed by standard MD5 hash of password phrase.
  • "{SHA}": this is followed by standard SHA hash of password phrase.
  • "{SHA256}": this is followed by standard SHA256 hash of password phrase.
  • "{CRYPT}": this is followed by standard DES crypt() hash of password phrase.

Source:

http://postfix.wiki.xs4all.nl/index.php?title=Virtual_Users_and_Domains_with_Courier-IMAP_and_MySQL 

From: at: 2008-07-25 19:30:16

Hi

To fix this problem, just use md5-crypt passwords (as used in /etc/shadow files, starting with $1$) for your mailboxes.

This should work. If it doesn't, append "md5=true" on both lines in /etc/pam.d/smtp.

From: at: 2008-01-18 16:27:33

apt-get source postfix did not work for me.

Replaced by 'apt-src install postfix'.

 

From: Anonymous at: 2009-06-17 20:42:27

Hi,

 under debian edge there is a bug in clamav so that it produces 100% cpu load and can´t open a unix socket.

Like this: 

connect to UNIX socket /var/run/clamav/clamd.ctl: No such file or directory

You have to update the clamav to solve this problem. Add folowing package sources in sources.list

deb http://volatile.debian.org/debian-volatile etch/volatile main

 then do: apt-get update

and install the packages: 

clamav-daemon
clamav-freshclam
clamav-base
clamav

then it sould work.

Good Luck

 Kruser

From: at: 2008-01-26 16:54:35

Hi,

Great Howto, thank you very much for your work.

Just a comment: you don't need to set sql parameters and mysql as auxprop_plugin in /etc/postfix/sasl/smtpd.conf as you intend to use PAM for authentication.

The following /etc/postfix/sasl/smtpd.conf should suffice:

pwcheck_method: saslauthd
mech_list: plain login
allow_plaintext: true

This way, plain PAM will be used, with the options you set in /etc/pam.d/smtpd. Indeed, you don't even need to install libsasl2-modules-sql package (but you still do need libpam-mysql, of course).

Best regards,

Alberto Caso
Adaptia

From: at: 2007-06-05 19:31:53

Hi,

 why do you add this SMTP-PAM-Module? I don't see any sense in this.

By the way: In Debian Etch you have to enable DCC in /etc/spamassassin/v310.pre

Regards,

Hypz 

From: at: 2007-07-11 21:17:01

Hi, first ov all thanks for the tut.

In etch you also have to activate spamassasin in /etc/default/spamassasin "ENABLE = 1"

Also I found this in the Fedora tut. about the paths ( it worked for me on etch ):

the dcc_path to the socket is (as I followed exacly the way of installing as described in this tut):

/var/lib/dcc/dccifd

* dcc_add_header and  pyzor_add_header are deprecated (Cf. http://spamassassin.apache.org/full/2.6x/dist/doc/Mail_SpamAssassin_Conf.txt), instead use respectively add_header all DCC _DCCB_: _DCCR_ and add_header all Pyzor _PYZOR_

 * to make amavis keep a part of the spamassassin header, add the following lines to your amavisd.conf :

$remove_existing_spam_headers = 0;

$sa_spam_report_header = 1;

Please correct me if I'm wrong. But it looks like this how it worked for me.

Greets Josh 

 

From: at: 2007-07-20 18:32:01

You are wrong, spamd is typically not used along with amavisd-new. amavisd-new calls spamassassin directly via Perl module Mail::SpamAssassin. So, I suggest leaving the default of "ENABLE = 0" in /etc/default/spamassasin.

From: Tim at: 2009-06-14 22:17:31

I was able to make this run in lenny with some light modifications, no DCC (debian boycotted it in lenny), etc.

Everything works nicely, but spamassassin, razor and pyzor do not print any headers in the e-mail, when "$sa_tag_level_deflt = undef;".

On the amavis startup logging, it does show razor2 being loaded, but not pyzor, while both are installed (did not configuration though).

Amavis is logging to mail.log whether the message is spam or not, and the X-Virus-Scanned shows, but no spamassassin, razor (and pyzor, but it won't even load) headers. Should I just install the perl package for spamassassin? I currently have the "spamassasin" lenny deb installed.

 

"$QUARANTINEDIR = "$MYHOME/virusmails";
$quarantine_subdir_levels = 1; # enable quarantine dir hashing

$log_recip_templ = undef;    # disable by-recipient level-0 log entries
$DO_SYSLOG = 1;              # log via syslogd (preferred)
$syslog_ident = 'amavis';    # syslog ident tag, prepended to all messages
$syslog_facility = 'mail';
$syslog_priority = 'debug';  # switch to info to drop debug output, etc

$enable_db = 1;              # enable use of BerkeleyDB/libdb (SNMP and nanny)
$enable_global_cache = 1;    # enable use of libdb-based cache if $enable_db=1

$inet_socket_port = 10024;   # default listening socket

$sa_spam_subject_tag = '***SPAM*** ';
$sa_tag_level_deflt = undef;   # add spam info headers if at, or above that level
$sa_tag2_level_deflt = 4.00;   # add 'spam detected' headers at that level
$sa_kill_level_deflt = 6.31;   # triggers spam evasive actions
$sa_dsn_cutoff_level = 10;     # spam level beyond which a DSN is not sent
"

Thanks!

Tim

From: at: 2008-02-17 22:56:39

I got this error in /var/log/mail.log
Can't connect to UNIX socket /var/run/clamav/clamd.ctl: No such file or directory

Sollution -> http://blog.brachium-system.net/categories/7-virus

From: at: 2010-08-21 19:37:35

Hi i folowed this guide and the server has worked well for over a year but now clamd uses up 100% of my cpu.

 

From: at: 2007-06-10 11:51:45

Thanks for this tutorial!

Whats with automatic custom rulesets updates for SpamAssassin?

=> http://www.howtoforge.com/virtual_postfix_mysql_quota_courier_p4

 Nico

From: at: 2008-05-27 15:32:58

You need to use clamav from Debian's volatile repository, otherwise this won't work at all.

On more thing, if you create new email account, and than try to fetch mail for it and fail miserably, than send an email to it, and then try again.

Good tutorial. Thanks ;) 

From: Bruno Taranto Alvim at: 2008-09-30 23:30:19

Change 2 files (mysql-virtual_mailboxes.cf and authmysqlrc) to Maildir work.

mail:/etc/postfix# more mysql-virtual_mailboxes.cf

user = postfix password = postfix dbname = postfix query = SELECT CONCAT(SUBSTRING_INDEX(email,'@',-1),'/','',SUBSTRING_INDEX(email,'@',1),'/','Maildir/') FROM users WHERE email='%s' hosts = 127.0.0.1

mail:/etc/courier# more authmysqlrc

MYSQL_SERVER localhost MYSQL_USERNAME postfix MYSQL_PASSWORD postfix MYSQL_PORT 0 MYSQL_DATABASE postfix MYSQL_USER_TABLE users MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD password #MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD password MYSQL_UID_FIELD 5000 MYSQL_GID_FIELD 5000 MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email MYSQL_HOME_FIELD "/home/vmail" MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD CONCAT(SUBSTRING_INDEX(email,'@',-1),'/','',SUBSTRING_INDEX(email,'@',1),'/','Maildir/') #MYSQL_NAME_FIELD MYSQL_QUOTA_FIELD quota

Now you can receive and get!