There is a new revision of this tutorial available for Ubuntu 15.10 (Wily Werewolf).
The Perfect Server - Ubuntu 14.04 (nginx, BIND, MySQL, PHP, Postfix, Dovecot and ISPConfig 3) - Page 3
This tutorial exists for these OS versions
- Ubuntu 15.10 (Wily Werewolf)
- Ubuntu 15.04 (Vivid Vervet)
- Ubuntu 14.10 (Utopic Unicorn)
- Ubuntu 13.04 (Raring Ringtail)
- Ubuntu 12.10 (Quantal Quetzal)
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4 Get root Privileges
After the reboot you can login with your previously created username (e.g. administrator). Because we must run all the steps from this tutorial with root privileges, we can either prepend all commands in this tutorial with the string sudo, or we become root right now by typing
(You can as well enable the root login by running
sudo passwd root
and giving root a password. You can then directly log in as root, but this is frowned upon by the Ubuntu developers and community for various reasons. See http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=765414.)
5 Install The SSH Server (Optional)
If you did not install the OpenSSH server during the system installation, you can do it now:
apt-get install ssh openssh-server
From now on you can use an SSH client such as PuTTY and connect from your workstation to your Ubuntu 14.04 server and follow the remaining steps from this tutorial.
6 Install vim-nox (Optional)
I'll use vi as my text editor in this tutorial. The default vi program has some strange behaviour on Ubuntu and Debian; to fix this, we install vim-nox:
apt-get install vim-nox
(You don't have to do this if you use a different text editor such as joe or nano.)
7 Configure The Network
Because the Ubuntu installer has configured our system to get its network settings via DHCP, we have to change that now because a server should have a static IP address. Edit /etc/network/interfaces and adjust it to your needs (in this example setup I will use the IP address 192.168.0.100 and the DNS servers 184.108.40.206 and 220.127.116.11 - starting with Ubuntu 12.04, you cannot edit /etc/resolv.conf directly anymore, but have to specify your nameservers in your network configuration - see
for more details):
# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system # and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5). # The loopback network interface auto lo iface lo inet loopback # The primary network interface auto eth0 iface eth0 inet static address 192.168.0.100 netmask 255.255.255.0 network 192.168.0.0 broadcast 192.168.0.255 gateway 192.168.0.1 dns-nameservers 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124
Then restart your network:
service networking restart
Then edit /etc/hosts. Make it look like this:
127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost 192.168.0.100 server1.example.com server1 # The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts ::1 ip6-localhost ip6-loopback fe00::0 ip6-localnet ff00::0 ip6-mcastprefix ff02::1 ip6-allnodes ff02::2 ip6-allrouters
echo server1.example.com > /etc/hostname
service hostname restart
Both should show server1.example.com now.
8 Edit /etc/apt/sources.list And Update Your Linux Installation
Edit /etc/apt/sources.list. Comment out or remove the installation CD from the file and make sure that the universe and multiverse repositories are enabled. It should look like this:
# # deb cdrom:[Ubuntu-Server 14.04 LTS _Trusty Tahr_ - Release amd64 (20140416.2)]/ trusty main restricted #deb cdrom:[Ubuntu-Server 14.04 LTS _Trusty Tahr_ - Release amd64 (20130423.2)]/ trusty main restricted # See http://help.ubuntu.com/community/UpgradeNotes for how to upgrade to # newer versions of the distribution. deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty main restricted deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty main restricted ## Major bug fix updates produced after the final release of the ## distribution. deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-updates main restricted deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-updates main restricted ## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu ## team. Also, please note that software in universe WILL NOT receive any ## review or updates from the Ubuntu security team. deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty universe deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty universe deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-updates universe deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-updates universe ## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu ## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to ## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in ## multiverse WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu ## security team. deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty multiverse deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty multiverse deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-updates multiverse deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-updates multiverse ## N.B. software from this repository may not have been tested as ## extensively as that contained in the main release, although it includes ## newer versions of some applications which may provide useful features. ## Also, please note that software in backports WILL NOT receive any review ## or updates from the Ubuntu security team. deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-backports main restricted universe multiverse deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-backports main restricted universe multiverse deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu trusty-security main restricted deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu trusty-security main restricted deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu trusty-security universe deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu trusty-security universe deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu trusty-security multiverse deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu trusty-security multiverse ## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from Canonical's ## 'partner' repository. ## This software is not part of Ubuntu, but is offered by Canonical and the ## respective vendors as a service to Ubuntu users. # deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu trusty partner # deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu trusty partner ## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from Ubuntu's ## 'extras' repository. ## This software is not part of Ubuntu, but is offered by third-party ## developers who want to ship their latest software. # deb http://extras.ubuntu.com/ubuntu trusty main # deb-src http://extras.ubuntu.com/ubuntu trusty main
to update the apt package database and
to install the latest updates (if there are any). If you see that a new kernel gets installed as part of the updates, you should reboot the system afterwards:
9 Change The Default Shell
/bin/sh is a symlink to /bin/dash, however we need /bin/bash, not /bin/dash. Therefore we do this:
Use dash as the default system shell (/bin/sh)? <-- No
If you don't do this, the ISPConfig installation will fail.
10 Disable AppArmor
AppArmor is a security extension (similar to SELinux) that should provide extended security. It is not installed by default from onwards 13.10. We will crosscheck if it is installed. In my opinion you don't need it to configure a secure system, and it usually causes more problems than advantages (think of it after you have done a week of trouble-shooting because some service wasn't working as expected, and then you find out that everything was ok, only AppArmor was causing the problem). Therefore I disable it (this is a must if you want to install ISPConfig later on).
We can disable it like this:
service apparmor stop
update-rc.d -f apparmor remove
apt-get remove apparmor apparmor-utils
If it shows that there is no service apparmor, then it means that it is not installed by default. So you can continue further.
11 Synchronize the System Clock
It is a good idea to synchronize the system clock with an NTP (network time protocol) server over the Internet. Simply run
apt-get install ntp ntpdate
and your system time will always be in sync.