How to install a Debian 9 (Stretch) Minimal Server - Page 2
It might be that the following screens pop's up, depending on your install media. I will do a network based installation (all additional installation packages get downloaded from the internet), so I choose here to not scan any additional install disks.
Next, you must configure apt. Because we are using the Debian Jessie Netinstall CD, which contains only a minimal set of packages, we must use a network mirror. Select the country where the network mirror that you want to use is located (usually this is the country where your Server system is located):
Then select the mirror you wish to use (e.g. ftp.us.debian.org):
Unless you use an HTTP proxy, leave the following field empty and hit Continue:
Apt is now updating its packages database:
You can skip the package usage survey by selecting No:
We just select Standard system utilities and SSH server (so that I can immediately connect to the system with an SSH client such as PuTTY after the installation has finished) and hit Continue.
Some might argue that one should not install the Standard System Utilities on a minimal server but in my opinion, you will need most of the standard utilities later anyway so I will install them on this server as part of the base setup.
The required packages are downloaded and installed on the system:
When you're asked to Install the GRUB boot loader to the master boot record?, select Yes:
The installer might ask you in which partition Grub shall be installed. This server has just one hard disk, so I choose /dev/sda here.
Press enter and the Installer will install Grub and finishes the installation.
The base system installation is now finished. Remove the Debian Netinstall CD from the CD drive and hit Continue to reboot the system:
The first boot of the newly installed Debian 9 server: first you will see the boot screen of the Grub Boot Loader, press enter or wait a few seconds, the boot process will continue automatically.
A few seconds later the login prompt should show up.
Login with username "root" and the root password that you have chosen during installation. When you log in by SSH, then use the username "administrator" as the root user is disabled for remote logins. Then run the command "su":
To become root user.
On to the next step...
4 Install The SSH Server (Optional)
If you did not install the OpenSSH server during the system installation, you could do it now:
apt-get -y install ssh openssh-server
From now on you can use an SSH client such as PuTTY and connect from your workstation to your Debian Jessie server and follow the remaining steps from this tutorial.
5 Install a shell editor (Optional)
I'll use nano as my favorite shell text editor, others prefer vi that is not that easy to use for beginners. With the following command I will install both editors:
apt-get -y install vim-nox nano
(You don't have to do this if you use a different text editor such as joe or the built-in editor from mc).
6 Configure The Network
By default, network tools like ifconfig are not available. install the package with:
apt-get install net-tools
Because the Debian 9 installer has configured our system to get its network settings via DHCP, we have to change that now because a server should have a static IP address. Edit /etc/network/interfaces and adjust it to your needs (in this example setup I will use the IP address 192.168.1.100) (please note that I replace allow-hotplug ens33 with auto ens33; otherwise restarting the network doesn't work, and we'd have to reboot the whole system):
The interfaces file with DHCP enabled as created by the apt installer:
# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system
# and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).
# The loopback network interface
iface lo inet loopback
# The primary network interface
iface ens33 inet dhcp
And here the edited interfaces file with the static IP 192.168.1.100 configured.
# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system # and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).
source /etc/network/interfaces.d/* # The loopback network interface auto lo iface lo inet loopback # The primary network interface auto ens33 iface ens33 inet static address 192.168.1.100 netmask 255.255.255.0 network 192.168.1.0 broadcast 192.168.1.255 gateway 192.168.1.1
Then restart your network:
service networking restart
Then edit /etc/hosts. Make it look like this:
127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost 192.168.1.100 server1.example.com server1 # The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts ::1 localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback ff02::1 ip6-allnodes ff02::2 ip6-allrouters
Now edit the hostname in case you did not select the final hostname in the installer
The /etc/hostname file contains the hostname without the domain part, so in our case just "server1".
Then reboot the server to apply the hostname change:
After you logged in again, run:
To verify that the new hostname is set correctly. The outut should be:
[email protected]:/home/administrator# hostname
[email protected]:/home/administrator# hostname -f
7 Update Your Debian Installation
First, make sure that your /etc/apt/sources.list contains the stretch/updates repository (this makes sure you always get the newest updates), and that the contrib and non-free repositories are enabled.
# deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux testing _Stretch_ - Official Snapshot amd64 NETINST 20170612-06:03]/ stretch main
#deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux testing _Stretch_ - Official Snapshot amd64 NETINST 20170612-06:03]/ stretch main
deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch main contrib non-free
deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch main contrib non-free
deb http://security.debian.org/debian-security stretch/updates main contrib non-free
deb-src http://security.debian.org/debian-security stretch/updates main contrib non-free
to update the apt package database and
to install the latest updates (if there are any).
8 Debian 9 VMWare server image
This tutorial is available as ready to use virtual machine image in ovf/ova format that is compatible with VMWare and Virtualbox. The virtual machine image uses the following login details:
SSH / Shell Login
The IP of the VM is 192.168.1.100, it can be changed in the file /etc/network/interfaces. Please change all the above passwords to secure the virtual machine.
- Debian: http://www.debian.org/