The Perfect Server - Ubuntu Intrepid Ibex (Ubuntu 8.10) - Page 3

4 Get root Privileges

After the reboot you can login with your previously created username (e.g. administrator). Because we must run all the steps from this tutorial with root privileges, we can either prepend all commands in this tutorial with the string sudo, or we become root right now by typing

sudo su  

(You can as well enable the root login by running

sudo passwd root

and giving root a password. You can then directly log in as root, but this is frowned upon by the Ubuntu developers and community for various reasons. See


5 Install The SSH Server (Optional)

If you did not install the OpenSSH server during the system installation, you can do it now:

apt-get install ssh openssh-server

From now on you can use an SSH client such as PuTTY and connect from your workstation to your Ubuntu 8.10 server and follow the remaining steps from this tutorial.


6 Install vim-nox (Optional)

I'll use vi as my text editor in this tutorial. The default vi program has some strange behaviour on Ubuntu and Debian; to fix this, we install vim-nox:

apt-get install vim-nox

(You don't have to do this if you use a different text editor such as joe or nano.)


7 Configure The Network

Because the Ubuntu installer has configured our system to get its network settings via DHCP, we have to change that now because a server should have a static IP address. Edit /etc/network/interfaces and adjust it to your needs (in this example setup I will use the IP address

vi /etc/network/interfaces
# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system
# and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).

# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

# The primary network interface
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static

Then restart your network:

/etc/init.d/networking restart

Then edit /etc/hosts. Make it look like this:

vi /etc/hosts       localhost.localdomain   localhost     server1

# The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts
::1     localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
fe00::0 ip6-localnet
ff00::0 ip6-mcastprefix
ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
ff02::2 ip6-allrouters
ff02::3 ip6-allhosts

Now run

echo > /etc/hostname
/etc/init.d/ start

Afterwards, run

hostname -f

Both should show now.


8 Edit /etc/apt/sources.list And Update Your Linux Installation

Edit /etc/apt/sources.list. Comment out or remove the installation CD from the file and make sure that the universe and multiverse repositories are enabled. It should look like this:

vi /etc/apt/sources.list
# deb cdrom:[Ubuntu-Server 8.10 _Intrepid Ibex_ - Release i386 (20081028.1)]/ intrepid main restricted

#deb cdrom:[Ubuntu-Server 8.10 _Intrepid Ibex_ - Release i386 (20081028.1)]/ intrepid main restricted
# See for how to upgrade to
# newer versions of the distribution.

deb intrepid main restricted
deb-src intrepid main restricted

## Major bug fix updates produced after the final release of the
## distribution.
deb intrepid-updates main restricted
deb-src intrepid-updates main restricted

## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team. Also, please note that software in universe WILL NOT receive any
## review or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
deb intrepid universe
deb-src intrepid universe
deb intrepid-updates universe
deb-src intrepid-updates universe

## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to
## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in
## multiverse WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu
## security team.
deb intrepid multiverse
deb-src intrepid multiverse
deb intrepid-updates multiverse
deb-src intrepid-updates multiverse

## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from the 'backports'
## repository.
## N.B. software from this repository may not have been tested as
## extensively as that contained in the main release, although it includes
## newer versions of some applications which may provide useful features.
## Also, please note that software in backports WILL NOT receive any review
## or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
# deb intrepid-backports main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src intrepid-backports main restricted universe multiverse

## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from Canonical's
## 'partner' repository. This software is not part of Ubuntu, but is
## offered by Canonical and the respective vendors as a service to Ubuntu
## users.
# deb intrepid partner
# deb-src intrepid partner

deb intrepid-security main restricted
deb-src intrepid-security main restricted
deb intrepid-security universe
deb-src intrepid-security universe
deb intrepid-security multiverse
deb-src intrepid-security multiverse

Then run

apt-get update

to update the apt package database and

apt-get upgrade

to install the latest updates (if there are any). If you see that a new kernel gets installed as part of the updates, you should reboot the system afterwards:



9 Change The Default Shell

/bin/sh is a symlink to /bin/dash, however we need /bin/bash, not /bin/dash. Therefore we do this:

ln -sf /bin/bash /bin/sh

If you don't do this, the ISPConfig installation will fail.


10 Disable AppArmor

AppArmor is a security extension (similar to SELinux) that should provide extended security. In my opinion you don't need it to configure a secure system, and it usually causes more problems than advantages (think of it after you have done a week of trouble-shooting because some service wasn't working as expected, and then you find out that everything was ok, only AppArmor was causing the problem). Therefore I disable it (this is a must if you want to install ISPConfig later on).

We can disable it like this:

/etc/init.d/apparmor stop
update-rc.d -f apparmor remove
apt-get remove apparmor apparmor-utils

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If you want to use Putty to complete the setup remotely as specified in step 5 on page 3,  you should use a password that has no capital letters. 

 For some stupid reason, putty will fail even though you are using the correct IP, correct username, and correct password, if the password has any capitals in it.

 If your password does, you can change it at the command prompt with the "passwd" command.

You should do that for both your user account AND the super user if you intend to use "sudo su" over Putty.


Actually, I have not had any difficulty with capitals in passwords using putty. Not sure why it does not seem to work for you.



apt-get dist-upgrade

 to upgrade your kernel too, in step 8 before you


 I was having trouble on my Dell 9200 with 7300LE Nvidia video card.  It would hang on reboot at the very end.  Processes shutdown, but it would not finally turn the power off for the restart.  Restart failed, so I had to physically hold the button down for 10 seconds to cycle the power off & on.  It would happen with another equivalent reboot command,

init 6

, too.

But this bug was fixed in an updated kernel.  To get that updated kernel, use this apt-get dist-upgrade command.

********************** EDIT  EDIT EDIT 2009-01-20 *****************

**********************     MORE INSTRUCTIONS     *******************

I noticed this grub file must be altered, to fix this reboot hang problem on a Dell 9200.

We’ll make a script to edit your /boot/grub/menu.lst file automatically. Make a folder, and add the path to this new folder to your $PATH environment variable, so that the bash shell of the command line will function on the script you will create inside that folder.

echo $PATH
export PATH=$PATH:/tempscript
echo $PATH
mkdir tempscript
cd /tempscript

Then make a script to edit the grub file. Start the vi text editor to create the file:

vi alter_menu

then press "i" to enter insert mode:


Cut & paste this script into the file (make sure you're not also pasting the HTML tags of this text too, because you are copying it from the browser):

cat $MENU | while read LINE
   if [[ $LINE =~ ^$ ]]; then
     echo $LINE
   elif [[ $LINE =~ ^[^kernel] ]] || [[ $LINE =~ .*bin$ ]]; then
     echo $LINE
   elif [[ $LINE =~ ^kernel.* ]]; then
     echo $LINE reboot=b

Press [ESC] to exit insert mode of the vi editor, then press


to save the script file and exit the editor. Now run the script and clean up:

chmod 777 alter_menu
alter_menu > /boot/grub/menu.lst.tmp
mv /boot/grub/menu.lst.tmp /boot/grub/menu.lst
cd ../../../../../../../../..
rm -r /tempscript

It is necessary to reboot manually one more time with the manual power button if your machine suffers from this problem, So that the server’s grub can boot with these new settings.

By: Anonymous

I had to set the DNS server address in /etc/resolv.conf to get the dns to work.

(Running  Ubuntu 8.10 server in VirtualBox under Vista with two netw adapters, the VBox network on secondary host interface, and InternetConnectionSharing turned on in Vista)