The Perfect Server - CentOS 6.1 x86_64 With nginx [ISPConfig 3] - Page 3
4 Adjust /etc/hosts
Next we edit /etc/hosts. Make it look like this:
127.0.0.1 localhost localhost.localdomain localhost4 localhost4.localdomain4 192.168.0.100 server1.example.com server1 ::1 localhost localhost.localdomain localhost6 localhost6.localdomain6
5 Configure The Firewall
(You can skip this chapter if you have already disabled the firewall at the end of the basic system installation.)
I want to install ISPConfig at the end of this tutorial which comes with its own firewall. That's why I disable the default CentOS firewall now. Of course, you are free to leave it on and configure it to your needs (but then you shouldn't use any other firewall later on as it will most probably interfere with the CentOS firewall).
and disable the firewall.
To check that the firewall has really been disabled, you can run
afterwards. The output should look like this:
[root@server1 ~]# iptables -L
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target prot opt source destination
Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT)
target prot opt source destination
Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target prot opt source destination
6 Disable SELinux
SELinux is a security extension of CentOS that should provide extended security. In my opinion you don't need it to configure a secure system, and it usually causes more problems than advantages (think of it after you have done a week of trouble-shooting because some service wasn't working as expected, and then you find out that everything was ok, only SELinux was causing the problem). Therefore I disable it (this is a must if you want to install ISPConfig later on).
Edit /etc/selinux/config and set SELINUX=disabled:
# This file controls the state of SELinux on the system. # SELINUX= can take one of these three values: # enforcing - SELinux security policy is enforced. # permissive - SELinux prints warnings instead of enforcing. # disabled - No SELinux policy is loaded. SELINUX=disabled # SELINUXTYPE= can take one of these two values: # targeted - Targeted processes are protected, # mls - Multi Level Security protection. SELINUXTYPE=targeted
Afterwards we must reboot the system:
7 Enable Additional Repositories And Install Some Software
First we import the GPG keys for software packages:
rpm --import /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY*
Then we enable the RPMforge and EPEL repositories on our CentOS system as lots of the packages that we are going to install in the course of this tutorial are not available in the official CentOS 6.1 repositories:
rpm --import http://dag.wieers.com/rpm/packages/RPM-GPG-KEY.dag.txt
rpm -ivh rpmforge-release-0.5.2-2.el6.rf.x86_64.rpm
(If the above link doesn't work anymore, you can find the current version of rpmforge-release here: http://packages.sw.be/rpmforge-release/)
rpm --import https://fedoraproject.org/static/0608B895.txt
rpm -ivh epel-release-6-5.noarch.rpm
We also need to enable the Remi RPM repository which contains the php-fpm package which we will install later on:
rpm --import http://rpms.famillecollet.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-remi
rpm -ivh http://rpms.famillecollet.com/enterprise/remi-release-6.rpm
yum install yum-priorities
... and add the line priority=10 to the [epel] section:
[epel] name=Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 6 - $basearch #baseurl=http://download.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/6/$basearch mirrorlist=https://mirrors.fedoraproject.org/metalink?repo=epel-6&arch=$basearch failovermethod=priority enabled=1 priority=10 gpgcheck=1 gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-EPEL-6 [...]
Then do the same for the [remi] section in /etc/yum.repos.d/remi.repo, plus change enabled to 1:
[remi] name=Les RPM de remi pour Enterprise Linux $releasever - $basearch #baseurl=http://rpms.famillecollet.com/enterprise/$releasever/remi/$basearch/ mirrorlist=http://rpms.famillecollet.com/enterprise/$releasever/remi/mirror enabled=1 priority=10 gpgcheck=1 gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-remi failovermethod=priority [remi-test] name=Les RPM de remi en test pour Enterprise Linux $releasever - $basearch #baseurl=http://rpms.famillecollet.com/enterprise/$releasever/test/$basearch/ mirrorlist=http://rpms.famillecollet.com/enterprise/$releasever/test/mirror enabled=0 gpgcheck=1 gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-remi
Then we update our existing packages on the system:
Now we install some software packages that are needed later on:
yum groupinstall 'Development Tools'
(If you have chosen a different partitioning scheme than I did, you must adjust this chapter so that quota applies to the partitions where you need it.)
To install quota, we run this command:
yum install quota
Edit /etc/fstab and add ,usrjquota=aquota.user,grpjquota=aquota.group,jqfmt=vfsv0 to the / partition (/dev/mapper/vg_server1-lv_root):
# # /etc/fstab # Created by anaconda on Fri Dec 16 00:22:26 2011 # # Accessible filesystems, by reference, are maintained under '/dev/disk' # See man pages fstab(5), findfs(8), mount(8) and/or blkid(8) for more info # /dev/mapper/vg_server1-lv_root / ext4 defaults,usrjquota=aquota.user,grpjquota=aquota.group,jqfmt=vfsv0 1 1 UUID=d995c881-fbc7-409f-bcad-86d255331a3f /boot ext4 defaults 1 2 /dev/mapper/vg_server1-lv_swap swap swap defaults 0 0 tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 devpts /dev/pts devpts gid=5,mode=620 0 0 sysfs /sys sysfs defaults 0 0 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
mount -o remount /
to enable quota.
9 Synchronize The System Clock
It is a good idea to synchronize the system clock with an NTP (network time protocol) server over the Internet. Simply run
yum install ntp
and your system time will always be in sync.
10 Install MySQL
Install MySQL as follows:
yum install mysql mysql-server
Then create the system startup links for MySQL and start it:
chkconfig --levels 235 mysqld on
Set passwords for the MySQL root account:
[root@server1 tmp]# mysql_secure_installation
NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MySQL
SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE! PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY!
In order to log into MySQL to secure it, we'll need the current
password for the root user. If you've just installed MySQL, and
you haven't set the root password yet, the password will be blank,
so you should just press enter here.
Enter current password for root (enter for none):
OK, successfully used password, moving on...
Setting the root password ensures that nobody can log into the MySQL
root user without the proper authorisation.
Set root password? [Y/n] <-- ENTER
New password: <-- yourrootsqlpassword
Re-enter new password: <-- yourrootsqlpassword
Password updated successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
By default, a MySQL installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MySQL without having to have a user account created for
them. This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother. You should remove them before moving into a
Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] <-- ENTER
Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'. This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.
Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] <-- ENTER
By default, MySQL comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can
access. This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.
Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] <-- ENTER
- Dropping test database...
- Removing privileges on test database...
Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.
Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] <-- ENTER
All done! If you've completed all of the above steps, your MySQL
installation should now be secure.
Thanks for using MySQL!