How To Set Up Software RAID1 On A Running LVM System (Incl. GRUB2 Configuration) (Ubuntu 10.04) - Page 4

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  1. 8 Testing
  2. 9 Links

8 Testing

Now let's simulate a hard drive failure. It doesn't matter if you select /dev/sda or /dev/sdb here. In this example I assume that /dev/sdb has failed.

To simulate the hard drive failure, you can either shut down the system and remove /dev/sdb from the system, or you (soft-)remove it like this:

mdadm --manage /dev/md0 --fail /dev/sdb1
mdadm --manage /dev/md1 --fail /dev/sdb5

mdadm --manage /dev/md0 --remove /dev/sdb1
mdadm --manage /dev/md1 --remove /dev/sdb5

Shut down the system:

shutdown -h now

Then put in a new /dev/sdb drive (if you simulate a failure of /dev/sda, you should now put /dev/sdb in /dev/sda's place and connect the new HDD as /dev/sdb!) and boot the system. It should still start without problems.

Now run

cat /proc/mdstat

and you should see that we have a degraded array:

[email protected]:~# cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [linear] [multipath] [raid0] [raid1] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4] [raid10]
md0 : active raid1 sda1[0]
      248768 blocks [2/1] [U_]

md1 : active raid1 sda5[0]
      4990912 blocks [2/1] [U_]

unused devices: <none>
[email protected]:~#

The output of

fdisk -l

should look as follows:

[email protected]:~# fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 5368 MB, 5368709120 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 652 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0006b7b7

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *           1          32      248832   fd  Linux raid autodetect
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/sda2              32         653     4990977    5  Extended
Partition 2 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/sda5              32         653     4990976   fd  Linux raid autodetect

Disk /dev/sdb: 5368 MB, 5368709120 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 652 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Disk /dev/sdb doesn't contain a valid partition table

Disk /dev/md1: 5110 MB, 5110693888 bytes
2 heads, 4 sectors/track, 1247728 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 8 * 512 = 4096 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Disk /dev/md1 doesn't contain a valid partition table

Disk /dev/md0: 254 MB, 254738432 bytes
2 heads, 4 sectors/track, 62192 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 8 * 512 = 4096 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Disk /dev/md0 doesn't contain a valid partition table
[email protected]:~#

Now we copy the partition table of /dev/sda to /dev/sdb:

sfdisk -d /dev/sda | sfdisk --force /dev/sdb

[email protected]:~# sfdisk -d /dev/sda | sfdisk --force /dev/sdb
Checking that no-one is using this disk right now ...
Warning: extended partition does not start at a cylinder boundary.
DOS and Linux will interpret the contents differently.
OK

Disk /dev/sdb: 652 cylinders, 255 heads, 63 sectors/track

sfdisk: ERROR: sector 0 does not have an msdos signature
 /dev/sdb: unrecognized partition table type
Old situation:
No partitions found
New situation:
Units = sectors of 512 bytes, counting from 0

   Device Boot    Start       End   #sectors  Id  System
/dev/sdb1   *      2048    499711     497664  fd  Linux raid autodetect
/dev/sdb2        501758  10483711    9981954   5  Extended
/dev/sdb3             0         -          0   0  Empty
/dev/sdb4             0         -          0   0  Empty
/dev/sdb5        501760  10483711    9981952  fd  Linux raid autodetect
Warning: partition 1 does not end at a cylinder boundary
Successfully wrote the new partition table

Re-reading the partition table ...

If you created or changed a DOS partition, /dev/foo7, say, then use dd(1)
to zero the first 512 bytes:  dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/foo7 bs=512 count=1
(See fdisk(8).)
[email protected]:~#

Afterwards we remove any remains of a previous RAID array from /dev/sdb...

mdadm --zero-superblock /dev/sdb1
mdadm --zero-superblock /dev/sdb5

... and add /dev/sdb to the RAID array:

mdadm -a /dev/md0 /dev/sdb1
mdadm -a /dev/md1 /dev/sdb5

Now take a look at

cat /proc/mdstat

[email protected]:~# cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [linear] [multipath] [raid0] [raid1] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4] [raid10]
md0 : active raid1 sdb1[1] sda1[0]
      248768 blocks [2/2] [UU]

md1 : active raid1 sdb5[2] sda5[0]
      4990912 blocks [2/1] [U_]
      [========>............]  recovery = 42.1% (2101760/4990912) finish=0.5min speed=87573K/sec

unused devices: <none>
[email protected]:~#

Wait until the synchronization has finished:

[email protected]:~# cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [linear] [multipath] [raid0] [raid1] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4] [raid10]
md0 : active raid1 sdb1[1] sda1[0]
      248768 blocks [2/2] [UU]

md1 : active raid1 sdb5[1] sda5[0]
      4990912 blocks [2/2] [UU]

unused devices: <none>
[email protected]:~#

Then install the bootloader on both HDDs:

grub-install /dev/sda
grub-install /dev/sdb

That's it. You've just replaced a failed hard drive in your RAID1 array.

 

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Comments

From: Stefan H.

great how to, but one additional hint could be given: you can use

# watch cat /proc/mdstat

to watch the ongoing process of the syncronisation

From: Peter Major

A brilliant step-by-step guide which allowed me to add the parallel raid disk on my backup server after I tried a hardware raid and failed. (One of those heart-stopping moments when the BIOS overwrote the partition table on both disks after the data sync to the new disk failed! Thankfully, I found a tool which analysed the disk and reconstructed the partition table.)

I then followed the instructions in this thread and successfully set up email notifications of the raid status.

Many thanks.