There is a new revision of this tutorial available for Debian 7 (Wheezy).
Encrypt Your Data With EncFS (Debian Wheezy)
EncFS provides an encrypted filesystem in user-space. It runs without any special permissions and uses the FUSE library and Linux kernel module to provide the filesystem interface. It is a pass-through filesystem, not an encrypted block device, which means it is created on top of an existing filesystem. This tutorial shows how you can use EncFS on Debian Wheezy to encrypt your data.
I do not issue any guarantee that this will work for you!
1 Preliminary Note
I'm using the username falko on my Debian Wheezy system in this tutorial.
2 Installing EncFS
EncFS can be installed as follows (we need root privileges):
apt-get install encfs
You should now take a look at the EncFS man page to familiarize yourself with its options:
3 Using EncFS
I will now create the directories encrypted and decrypted in my home directory:
mkdir -p ~/encrypted
mkdir -p ~/decrypted
The decrypted directory acts as the mount point for the encrypted directory. To mount ~/encrypted to ~/decrypted, simply run:
encfs ~/encrypted ~/decrypted
If you run this command for the first time, the EncFS setup is started, and you must define a password for the encrypted volume:
[email protected]:~$ encfs ~/encrypted ~/decrypted
Creating new encrypted volume.
Please choose from one of the following options:
enter "x" for expert configuration mode,
enter "p" for pre-configured paranoia mode,
anything else, or an empty line will select standard mode.
?> <-- p
Paranoia configuration selected.
Configuration finished. The filesystem to be created has
the following properties:
Filesystem cipher: "ssl/aes", version 3:0:2
Filename encoding: "nameio/block", version 3:0:1
Key Size: 256 bits
Block Size: 1024 bytes, including 8 byte MAC header
Each file contains 8 byte header with unique IV data.
Filenames encoded using IV chaining mode.
File data IV is chained to filename IV.
File holes passed through to ciphertext.
-------------------------- WARNING --------------------------
The external initialization-vector chaining option has been
enabled. This option disables the use of hard links on the
filesystem. Without hard links, some programs may not work.
The programs 'mutt' and 'procmail' are known to fail. For
more information, please see the encfs mailing list.
If you would like to choose another configuration setting,
please press CTRL-C now to abort and start over.
Now you will need to enter a password for your filesystem.
You will need to remember this password, as there is absolutely
no recovery mechanism. However, the password can be changed
later using encfsctl.
New Encfs Password: <-- yoursecretpassword
Verify Encfs Password: <-- yoursecretpassword
Make sure you remember the password because there's no way to recover your encrypted data if you forget the password!
You should now find the EncFS volume in the outputs of
[email protected]:~$ mount
/dev/mapper/server1-root on / type ext4 (rw,errors=remount-ro,usrjquota=quota.user,grpjquota=quota.group,jqfmt=vfsv0)
proc on /proc type proc (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
fusectl on /sys/fs/fuse/connections type fusectl (rw)
none on /sys/kernel/debug type debugfs (rw)
none on /sys/kernel/security type securityfs (rw)
udev on /dev type devtmpfs (rw,mode=0755)
devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,noexec,nosuid,gid=5,mode=0620)
tmpfs on /run type tmpfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,size=10%,mode=0755)
none on /run/lock type tmpfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev,size=5242880)
none on /run/shm type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev)
/dev/sda1 on /boot type ext2 (rw)
encfs on /home/falko/decrypted type fuse.encfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,default_permissions,user=falko)
[email protected]:~$ df -h
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
29G 1.7G 26G 6% /
udev 238M 4.0K 238M 1% /dev
tmpfs 99M 272K 99M 1% /run
none 5.0M 4.0K 5.0M 1% /run/lock
none 247M 0 247M 0% /run/shm
/dev/sda1 228M 24M 193M 11% /boot
encfs 29G 1.7G 26G 6% /home/falko/decrypted
To save your data in encrypted form, put your data into the decrypted directory, just as you would do with a normal directory:
echo "hello foo" > foo
echo "hello bar" > bar
ln -s foo foo2
If you check the contents of the directory, you will see that you can see it in unencrypted form...
[email protected]:~/decrypted$ ls -l
-rw-rw-r-- 1 falko falko 10 2013-07-20 17:47 bar
-rw-rw-r-- 1 falko falko 10 2013-07-20 17:47 foo
lrwxrwxrwx 1 falko falko 3 2013-07-20 17:47 foo2 -> foo
... while in the encrypted directory, it's encrypted:
[email protected]:~/encrypted$ ls -l
-rw-rw-r-- 1 falko falko 26 2013-07-20 17:47 ,JeO9RDJUL7FBY25KG0zt4uL
-rw-rw-r-- 1 falko falko 26 2013-07-20 17:47 KaS26yvbb8Th-J8lUCO8TBwq
lrwxrwxrwx 1 falko falko 24 2013-07-20 17:47 ZYBiCw5dUfsaIQmW8RQ9pTGZ -> KaS26yvbb8Th-J8lUCO8TBwq
To unmount the encrypted volume, run:
fusermount -u ~/decrypted
Check the outputs of...
... and you will see that the EncFS volume isn't listed anymore.
To mount it again, run
encfs ~/encrypted ~/decrypted
You will be asked for the password you defined earlier:
If you specify the correct password, this will mount the ~/encrypted directory to ~/decrypted from where you can access your encrypted data in unencrypted form. If you forget the password, your encrypted data is lost!
If you want to change the password, you can do this with the
encfsctl passwd ~/encrypted
[email protected]:~$ encfsctl passwd ~/encrypted
Enter current Encfs password
EncFS Password: <-- yoursecretpassword
Enter new Encfs password
New Encfs Password: <-- newsecretpassword
Verify Encfs Password: <-- newsecretpassword
Volume Key successfully updated.