How to Setup IKEv2 VPN Using Strongswan and Let's Encrypt on CentOS 8

Strongswan is an open-source multiplatform IPSec implementation. It's an IPSec-based VPN solution that focuses on strong authentication mechanisms. Strongswan offers support for both IKEv1 and IKEv2 key exchange protocols, authentication based on X.509 certificates or pre-shared keys, and secure IKEv2 EAP user authentication.

In this tutorial, I will show you how to install an IPSec VPN server using Strongswan. We will create an IKEv2 VPN server with the 'EAP-MSCHAPv2' authentication and be using Letsencrypt certificates on CentOS 8 server.

Prerequisites

  • CentOS 8 Server
  • Root privileges

What we will do?

  • Install Strongswan on CentOS 8
  • Generate SSL Letsencrypt
  • Configure Strongswan
  • Enable NAT Firewall
  • Enable Port-Forwarding
  • Testing

Step 1 - Install Strongswan on CentOS 8

In this first step, we will install the strongswan IPsec implement software and all packages needed from the EPEL repository.

Before installing the strongswan package, you must add the EPEL repository to the CentOS 8 system.

Add the EPEL repository for CentOS 8 server.

sudo dnf install epel-release

After that, install the strongswan package from the EPEL repository using the dnf command below.

sudo dnf install strongswan

Wait for the strongswan package to be installed.

Install Strongswan

Step 2 - Generate SSL Certificate with Let's encrypt

For this guide, we're going to create the IKEv2 VPN server using a domain name 'vpn.hakase-labs.io' and use certificates generated from letsencrypt.

In this step, we will install the letsencrypt tool 'certbot' manually and generate certificates for the server domain name 'vpn.hakase-labs.io'.

Download the certbot binary file from GitHub using the wget command below.

wget https://dl.eff.org/certbot-auto -O /usr/local/bin/certbot-auto

After that, make it an executable by changing the permission of the file.

chmod +x /usr/local/bin/certbot-auto

And the certbot tool for generating Letsencrypt certificates has been installed.

Create SSL Certificate with Let's encrypt

Before generating the Letsencrypt certificates, we need to open the HTTP and HTTPS ports of the server using firewall-cmd.

Add the HTTP and HTTPS services to the firewalld service list by running firewall-cmd commands below.

firewall-cmd --add-service=http --permanent
firewall-cmd --add-service=https --permanent
firewall-cmd --reload

Now we can generate new SSL certificate files using the letsencrypt tool certbot-auto.

Configure the Firewall

Change the email address and the domain name with your own and run the 'certbot-auto' command below.

certbot-auto certonly --rsa-key-size 2048 --standalone --agree-tos --no-eff-email --email [email protected] -d vpn.hakase-labs.io

Once it's complete, you will get the result as below.

Get SSL Certificate with Certbot

All certificates of your domain name are generated to the '/etc/letsencrypt/live/domain.com' directory.

Next, we need to copy the certificate files 'fullchain.pem', 'privkey.pem', and the 'chain.pem' to the '/etc/strongswan/ipsec.d/' directory.

cp /etc/letsencrypt/live/vpn.hakase-labs.io/fullchain.pem /etc/strongswan/ipsec.d/certs/
cp /etc/letsencrypt/live/vpn.hakase-labs.io/privkey.pem /etc/strongswan/ipsec.d/private/
cp /etc/letsencrypt/live/vpn.hakase-labs.io/chain.pem /etc/strongswan/ipsec.d/cacerts/

All letsencrypt certificates for the Strongswan VPN named 'vpn.hakase-labs.io' have been generated and copied to the '/etc/strongswan/ipsec.d' directory.

tree /etc/strongswan/ipsec.d/

Certificates for Strongswan

Step 3 - Configure Strongswan

Go to the '/etc/strongswan' directory and backup the default 'ipsec.conf 'configuration file.

cd /etc/strongswan/
mv ipsec.conf ipsec.conf.asli

Create a new one 'ipsec.conf' using vim editor.

vim ipsec.conf

And paste the following configuration.

config setup
    uniqueids=never # allow multiple connections per user
    charondebug="ike 2, knl 2, cfg 2, net 2, esp 2, dmn 2,  mgr 2"

conn %default
    fragmentation=yes
    closeaction=restart
    rekey=no
    dpdaction=clear
    keyexchange=ikev2
    compress=yes
    dpddelay=35s
    lifetime=3h
    ikelifetime=12h

    ike=aes256gcm16-prfsha512-ecp384!
    esp=aes256gcm16-ecp384!

    left=%any
    [email protected]
    leftcert=fullchain.pem
    leftsendcert=always
    leftsubnet=0.0.0.0/0

    right=%any
    rightid=%any
    rightauth=eap-mschapv2
    rightsourceip=10.15.1.0/24
    rightdns=1.1.1.1,8.8.8.8
    rightsendcert=never
    eap_identity=%identity

conn ikev2-pubkey
    auto=add

Save and exit.

Next, we need to edit the 'ipsec.secrets' file to define the RSA server private key and EAP user password credentials.

Edit the 'ipsec.secrets' file.

vim ipsec.secrets

Paste the configuration below.

: RSA "privkey.pem"
hakase : EAP "[email protected]"
tensai : EAP "[email protected]"

Save and exit.

And the strongswan IPSec configuration has been completed. Add the strongswan service to startup boot time and then start the service.

systemctl enable strongswan
systemctl start strongswan

Enable Strongswan Daemon

The strongswan service is up and running on CentOS 8 server, check it using the following command.

systemctl status strongswan
netstat -plntu

And you will be shown the result as below.

Strongswan started successfully

Step 4 - Enable NAT in Firewalld

In this step, we will enable the NAT masquerading and add the IPSec protocols Authentication Header (AH) and Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) on Firewalld using the 'rich-rule' configuration.

Add 'AH' and 'ESP' for authentication and encryption protocols to the firewalld.

firewall-cmd --zone=public --permanent --add-rich-rule='rule protocol value="esp" accept'
firewall-cmd --zone=public --permanent --add-rich-rule='rule protocol value="ah" accept'

Add the ipsec UDP ports and service.

firewall-cmd --zone=public --permanent --add-port=500/udp
firewall-cmd --zone=public --permanent --add-port=4500/udp
firewall-cmd --zone=public --permanent --add-service="ipsec"

Now enable the NAT mode masquerade and reload the firewalld configuration rules.

firewall-cmd --zone=public --permanent --add-masquerade
firewall-cmd --reload

Firewall configuration

The NAT mode on firewalld has been enabled, check using the command below.

firewall-cmd --list-all

Following is the result.

List Firewall ports

Step 5 - Enable Port-Forwarding

To enable port-forwarding, we need to edit the 'sysctl.conf' file.

Edit the '/etc/sysctl.conf' file using vim editor.

vim /etc/sysctl.conf

Paste the following configuration there.

net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1
net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects = 0
net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects = 0

Save and exit, now reload using the sysctl command below.

sysctl -p

Port-forwarding has been enabled. Now restart the strongswan service.

systemctl restart strongswan

Enable Port forwarding

Step 6 - Testing Strongswan IPSec VPN

In this case, we will do the test on the MacOS X and android phone.

On MacOS

- Open the 'System Preferences' and click the 'Network' menu.

Click the '+' button to create a new VPN connection.

    • Interface: 'VPN'
    • VPN Type: 'IKEv2'
    • Service Name: 'IKEv2-vpn

Configure VPN on MacOS

- On the 'Server Address' and 'Remote ID', type the VPN domain name 'ikev2.hakase-labs.io'.
- Click 'Authentication Settings'.
- Authentication using a 'Username'.
- Type the username 'tensai' with password '[email protected]'
- Click 'OK' and click 'Apply'.

MacOS VPN authentication settings


New IKEv2 VPN connection has been created on the client. Now click the connect button.

New IKEv2 VPN connection has been created


And the client has been connected to the strongswan VPN server and has an internal/private IP address 10.15.1.1.

On Android

- Download and install the native strongswan android application from Google-Play.
- Add new VPN profile
- Type the server domain name 'ikev2.hakase-labs.io' and use the IKEv2 EAP Username and Password authentication.

Following is the result when we connect to the VPN server.

Configure VPN on Android

The IKEv2 IPSec-based VPN server has been created using Strongswan and Letsencrypt on CentOS 8 server.

Reference

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Comments

By: Jianghan Liu at: 2019-11-30 08:48:27

But now if I try to connect to this on macOS Catalina, the system will pop up and say "VPN Connection: An unexpected error occurred."

What should I do?

By: Muhammad Arul at: 2019-12-01 14:20:42

Check logs of your connection.