Apache is an open-source HTTP server implementation. It is the most popular web server on the Internet. The December 2005 Web Server Survey conducted by Netcraft [1] shows that about 70% of the web sites on Internet are using Apache.

1. Apache server performance

Apache server performance can be improved by adding additional hardware resources such as RAM, faster CPU etc. But, most of the time, the same result can be achieved by custom configuration of the server. This article looks into getting maximum performance out of Apache with the existing hardware resources, specifically on the Linux systems. Of course, it is assumed that there is enough hardware resources, especially enough RAM that the server isn't swapping frequently. First two sections look into various Compile-Time and Run-Time configuration options. Run-Time section assumes that Apache is compiled with prefork MPM. HTTP compression and caching is discussed next. Finally, using separate servers for serving static and dynamic contents are being discussed. Basic knowledge of compiling and configuring Apache, and Linux are assumed.

2 Compile-Time Configuration Options

2.1 Load only the required modules:

The Apache HTTP Server is a modular program where the administrator can choose the functionality to include in the server by selecting a set of modules [2]. The modules can be either statically compiled to the httpd binary or else can be compiled as Dynamic Shared Objects (DSOs). DSO modules can be either compiled when the server is built or else can use the apxs utility to compile and add at a later date. The module mod_so must be statically compiled into the Apache core to enable DSO support.

Run apache with only the required modules. This reduces the memory footprint and hence the server performance. Statically compiling modules will save RAM that's used for supporting dynamically loaded modules, but one has to recompile Apache whenever a module is to be added or dropped. This is where the DSO mechanism comes handy. Once the mod_so module is statically compiled, any other module can be added or dropped using the LoadModule command in httpd.conf file - of course, you will have to compile the modules using apxs if it wasn't compiled when the server was built.

2.2 Choose appropriate MPM:

Apache server ships with a selection of Multi-Processing Modules (MPMs) which are responsible for binding to network ports on the machine, accepting requests, and dispatching children to handle the requests [3]. Only one MPM can be loaded into the server at any time.

Choosing an MPM depends on various factors such as whether the OS supports threads, how much memory is available, scalability versus stability, whether non-thread-safe third-party modules are used, etc.. Linux systems can choose to use a threaded MPM like worker or a non-threaded MPM like prefork:

Worker MPM uses multiple child processes. It's multi-threaded within each child and each thread handles a single connection. Worker is fast and highly scalable and the memory footprint is comparatively low. It's well suited for multiple processors. On the other hand, worker is less tolerant to faulty modules and faulty threads can affect all the threads in a child process.

Prefork MPM uses multiple child processes, each child handles one connection at a time. Prefork is well suited for single or double CPU systems, speed is comparable to that of worker and it's highly tolerant to faulty modules and crashing children. But the memory usage is high, more traffic leads to more memory usage.

3 Run-Time Configuration Options

3.1 DNS lookup:

The HostnameLookups directive enables DNS lookup so that hostnames can be logged instead of the IP address. This adds latency to every request since the DNS lookup has to be completed before the request is finished. HostnameLookups is Off by default in Apache 1.3 and above. Leave it Off and use post-processing program such as logresolve to resolve IP addresses in Apache's access logfiles. Logresolve ships with Apache.

When using Allow from or Deny from directives, use IP address instead of a domain name or a hostname. Otherwise a double DNS lookup is performed to make sure that the domain name or the hostname is not being spoofed.

3.2 AllowOverride:

If AllowOverride is not set to 'None', then Apache will attempt to open .htaccess file (as specified by AccessFileName directive) in each directory that it visits. For example:
DocumentRoot /var/www/html
<Directory />
AllowOverride all

If a request is made for URI /index.html, then Apache will attempt to open /.htaccess, /var/.htaccess, /var/www/.htaccess, and /var/www/html/.htaccess. These additional file system lookups add to the latency. If .htaccess is required for a particular directory, then enable it for that directory alone.

If FollowSymLinks option is set, then the server will follow symbolic links in this directory. If SymLinksIfOwnerMatch is set, then the server will follow symbolic links only if the target file or directory is owned by the same user as the link.

If SymLinksIfOwnerMatch is set, then Apache will have to issue additional system calls to verify whether the ownership of the link and the target file match. Additional system calls are also needed when FollowSymLinks is NOT set. For example:

 DocumentRoot /vaw/www/html 
<Directory />
Options SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
For a request made for URI /index.html, Apache will perform lstat() on /var, /var/www, /var/www/html, and /var/www/html/index.html. These additional system calls will add to the latency. The lstat results are not cached, so they will occur on every request.

For maximum performance, set FollowSymLinks everywhere and never set SymLinksIfOwnerMatch. Or else, if SymLinksIfOwnerMatch is required for a directory, then set it for that directory alone.

3.4 Content Negotiation:

Avoid content negotiation for fast response. If content negotiation is required for the site, use type-map files rather than Options MultiViews directive. With MultiViews, Apache has to scan the directory for files, which add to the latency.

3.5 MaxClients:

The MaxClients sets the limit on maximum simultaneous requests that can be supported by the server. No more than this much number of child processes are spawned. It shouldn't be set too low such that new connections are put in queue, which eventually time-out and the server resources are left unused. Setting this too high will cause the server to start swapping and the response time will degrade drastically. Appropriate value for MaxClients can be calculated as: MaxClients = Total RAM dedicated to the web server / Max child process size ---- [4] Child process size for serving static file is about 2-3M. For dynamic content such as PHP, it may be around 15M. The RSS column in
"ps -ylC httpd --sort:rss"
shows non-swapped physical memory usage by Apache processes in kilo Bytes.

If there are more concurrent users than MaxClients, the requests will be queued up to a number based on ListenBacklog directive. Increase ServerLimit to set MaxClients above 256.

3.6 MinSpareServers, MaxSpareServers, and StartServers:

MaxSpareServers and MinSpareServers determine how many child processes to keep while waiting for requests. If the MinSpareServers is too low and a bunch of requests come in, then Apache will have to spawn additional child processes to serve the requests. Creating child processes is relatively expensive. If the server is busy creating child processes, it won't be able to serve the client requests immediately. MaxSpareServers shouldn't be set too high, it can cause resource problems since the child processes consume resources.

Tune MinSpareServers and MaxSpareServers such that Apache need not frequently spwan more than 4 child processes per second (Apache can spwan a maximum of 32 child processes per second). When more than 4 children are spawned per second, a message will be logged in the ErrorLog.

The StartServers directive sets the number of child server processes created on startup. Apache will continue creating child process until the MinSpareServers setting is reached. Doesn't have much effect on performance if the server isn't restarted frequently. If there are lot of requests and Apache is restarted frequently, set this to a relatively high value.

3.7 MaxRequestsPerChild:

The MaxRequestsPerChild directive sets the limit on the number of requests that an individual child server process will handle. After MaxRequestsPerChild requests, the child process will die. It's set to 0 by default, that means the child process will never expire. It is appropriate to set this to a value of few thousands. This can help prevent memory leakage since the process dies after serving a certain number of requests. Do not set this too low, since creating new processes does have overhead.

3.8 KeepAlive and KeepAliveTimeout:

The KeepAlive directive allows multiple requests to be sent over the same TCP connection. This is particularly useful while serving HTML pages with lot of images. If KeepAlive is set to Off, then for each images, a separate TCP connection has to be made. Overhead due to establishing TCP connection can be eliminated by turning On KeepAlive.

KeepAliveTimeout determines how long to wait for the next request. Set this to a low value, perhaps between two to five seconds. If it is set too high, child processed are tied up waiting for the client when they could be used for serving new clients.

4 HTTP Compression & Caching

HTTP compression is completely specified in HTTP/1.1. The server uses gzip or deflate encoding method to the response payload before it is sent to the client. Client then decompresses the payload. There is no need to install any additional software at the client side since all major browsers support this. Using compression will save bandwidth and improve response time, studies have found a mean compression gain of 75.2 % [5]. HTTP Compression can be enabled in Apache using mod_deflate module. Payload is compressed only if the browser requests compression, otherwise uncompressed content is served. A compression aware browser inform the server that it prefers compressed content through the HTTP request header - "Accept-Encoding: gzip,deflate". Then the server responds with compressed payload and the response header set to "
Following example uses telnet to view request and response headers:
bash-3.00$ telnet www.webperformance.org 80
Connected to www.webperformance.org (
Escape character is '^]'.
Host: www.webperformance.org
Accept-Encoding: gzip,deflate

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Sat, 31 Dec 2005 02:29:22 GMT
Server: Apache/2.0
X-Powered-By: PHP/5.1.1
Cache-Control: max-age=0
Expires: Sat, 31 Dec 2005 02:29:22 GMT
Vary: Accept-Encoding
Content-Encoding: gzip
Content-Length: 20
Content-Type: text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1
In caching, a copy of the data is stored at the client or in a proxy server so that it need not be retrieved frequently from the server. This will save bandwidth, decrease load on the server and reduce latency. Cache control is done through HTTP headers. In Apache, this can be accomplished through mod_expires and mod_headers modules. Also there is server side caching, in which the frequently accessed contents are stored in memory so that it can be served fast. The module mod_cache can be used for server side caching, it is production stable in Apache version 2.2.

5 Separate server for static and dynamic content

Apache processes serving dynamic content takes about 3M to 20M of RAM. It grows to accommodate the content it's serving and never decreases until the process dies. Say an Apache process grows to 20M to serve a dynamic content. After completing the request, it is free to serve any other request. If a request for an image comes in, then this 20M process is serving a static content which could as well be served by a 1M process. Memory is used inefficiently.

Use a tiny Apache (with minimum modules statically compiled) as the front-end server to serve static contents. Request for dynamic contents are forwarded to the heavy Apache (compiled with all required modules). Using a light front-end server has the advantage that the static contents are served fast without much memory usage and only the dynamic contents are passed over to the heavy server.

Request forwarding can be achieved by using mod_proxy and rewrite_module modules. Suppose there is a lightweight Apache server listening to port 80 and the heavyweight Apache listening on port 8088. Then the following configuration in the lightweight Apache can be used to forward all request except request for images to the heavyweight server.

ProxyPassReverse / http://%{HTTP_HOST}:8088/
RewriteEngine on ---- [9]
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !.*\.(gif|png|jpg)$
RewriteRule ^/(.*) http://%{HTTP_HOST}:8088/$1 [P]
All requests, except for images, are proxied to the backend server. Response is received by the frontend server and then supplied to the client. As far as client is concerned, all the response seem to come from a single server.

6 Conclusion

Configuring Apache for maximum performance is tricky, there are no hard and fast rules. Understand the web server requirements and experiment with various available options. Use tools like ab and httperf to measure the web server performance. Light weight servers such as tux , thttpd can also be used as the front-end server. If a database server is used, make sure it is optimized so that it won't create any bottleneck. In case of MySQL, mtop can be used to monitor slow queries. Performance of PHP scripts can be improved by using a PHP caching product such as Turck MMCache. It eliminates overhead due to compiling by caching the PHP scripts in compiled state.


1 http://news.netcraft.com/archives/web_server_survey.html
2 http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/dso.html
3 http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/mpm.html
4 http://modperlbook.org/html/ch11_01.html
5 http://www.speedupyoursite.com/18/18-2t.html
6 http://www.xs4all.nl/~thomas/apachecon/PerformanceTuning.html
7 http://www.onlamp.com/pub/a/onlamp/2004/02/05/lamp_tuning.html
8 http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/misc/perf-tuning.html

9 Linux Server Hacks by Rob Flickenger

Writer Bio: Vishnu Ram is an MTech. in Communication Systems from IIT Madras. He joined Bobcares in 2003 and has been working for Poornam since then.

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By: evolutionaryit

Thanks for the great article!

By: Anonymous

Regarding "2.2 Choose appropriate MPM": The main point choosing the right MPM is if the MPM is supported by the other necessary modules and used web applications. E.g. modules like Embperl only work together with the Prefork MPM.

But I'm happy to see that separating the servers for static and dynamic content is mentioned since I see this as one of the most efficient methods to save resources. I usually do this with several backend servers: One for mod_perl, one for php, etc.

By: Anonymous

The article is a bit vague in chapter 4 about compression and caching. While caching might be good for the client response times, i would personaly stay away from compression. It adds cpu load to the server and even thou it adds only small amount of cpu usage, it could be used to stress the server remotely.

Also, the article is missing very crucial part of tuning web server for fast response times and big amount of concurrent users: Kernel tuning. There's no mention of even simple parameters like how many file descriptors can be open at any time by user. For big sites this is crucial. And it comes really a requirement if there's any php/database code.

It would also be good article idea if to comb thru php options with apache in mind as default rules for php as apache module are very easy to ddos your machine (namely, no limitations on concurrent database connections)

By: Valsaraj Viswanathan

This is very helpful...

By: Marian

You can use nginx as frontend for static content and apache as backend. Nginx can handle a lot of connections and fix the issues regarding apache keepalive.


server {
        listen default backlog=10000;
        server_name mywebsite.com www.mywebsite.com;

        location / {
        # Pass to Apache server.
           proxy_redirect     off;
           proxy_set_header   Host             $host;
           proxy_set_header   X-Real-IP        $remote_addr;
           proxy_set_header   X-Forwarded-For  $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        # Static files location
location ~* ^.+.(jpg|jpeg|gif|png|ico|css|zip|tgz|gz|rar|bz2|doc|xls|exe|pdf|ppt|txt|tar|mid|midi|wav|bmp|rtf|js|swf|htc)$ {
root /home/myusername/www/mywebsite.com;
expires 24h;

By: Javier

From apache doc:

Allow Override

"When this directive is set to None, then .htaccess files are completely ignored. In this case, the server will not even attempt to read .htaccess files in the filesystem."

It seems to me that it says exactly the opposite as you are stating in your article, what am I getting wrong?

Thanks for such a great article.



By: brody

this articleis pretty old (2005) can somebody update this?

By: 24x7servermanagement.com

Yes article are old, but information are really good, I like it


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