The Perfect Server - Ubuntu Karmic Koala (Ubuntu 9.10) [ISPConfig 2] - Page 3

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Submitted by falko (Contact Author) (Forums) on Thu, 2009-11-05 18:28. ::

4 Get root Privileges

After the reboot you can login with your previously created username (e.g. administrator). Because we must run all the steps from this tutorial with root privileges, we can either prepend all commands in this tutorial with the string sudo, or we become root right now by typing

sudo su

(You can as well enable the root login by running

sudo passwd root

and giving root a password. You can then directly log in as root, but this is frowned upon by the Ubuntu developers and community for various reasons. See http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=765414.)

 

5 Install The SSH Server (Optional)

If you did not install the OpenSSH server during the system installation, you can do it now:

aptitude install ssh openssh-server

From now on you can use an SSH client such as PuTTY and connect from your workstation to your Ubuntu 9.10 server and follow the remaining steps from this tutorial.

 

6 Install vim-nox (Optional)

I'll use vi as my text editor in this tutorial. The default vi program has some strange behaviour on Ubuntu and Debian; to fix this, we install vim-nox:

aptitude install vim-nox

(You don't have to do this if you use a different text editor such as joe or nano.)

 

7 Configure The Network

Because the Ubuntu installer has configured our system to get its network settings via DHCP, we have to change that now because a server should have a static IP address. Edit /etc/network/interfaces and adjust it to your needs (in this example setup I will use the IP address 192.168.0.100):

vi /etc/network/interfaces

# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system
# and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).

# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

# The primary network interface
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static
        address 192.168.0.100
        netmask 255.255.255.0
        network 192.168.0.0
        broadcast 192.168.0.255
        gateway 192.168.0.1

Then restart your network:

/etc/init.d/networking restart

Then edit /etc/hosts. Make it look like this:

vi /etc/hosts

127.0.0.1       localhost.localdomain   localhost
192.168.0.100   server1.example.com     server1

# The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts
::1     localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
fe00::0 ip6-localnet
ff00::0 ip6-mcastprefix
ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
ff02::2 ip6-allrouters
ff02::3 ip6-allhosts

Now run

echo server1.example.com > /etc/hostname

... and reboot the system:

reboot

Afterwards, run

hostname
hostname -f

Both should show server1.example.com now.

 

8 Edit /etc/apt/sources.list And Update Your Linux Installation

Edit /etc/apt/sources.list. Comment out or remove the installation CD from the file and make sure that the universe and multiverse repositories are enabled. It should look like this:

vi /etc/apt/sources.list

#
# deb cdrom:[Ubuntu-Server 9.10 _Karmic Koala_ - Release amd64 (20091027.2)]/ karmic main restricted

#deb cdrom:[Ubuntu-Server 9.10 _Karmic Koala_ - Release amd64 (20091027.2)]/ karmic main restricted
# See http://help.ubuntu.com/community/UpgradeNotes for how to upgrade to
# newer versions of the distribution.

deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ karmic main restricted
deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ karmic main restricted

## Major bug fix updates produced after the final release of the
## distribution.
deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ karmic-updates main restricted
deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ karmic-updates main restricted

## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team. Also, please note that software in universe WILL NOT receive any
## review or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ karmic universe
deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ karmic universe
deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ karmic-updates universe
deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ karmic-updates universe

## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to
## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in
## multiverse WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu
## security team.
deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ karmic multiverse
deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ karmic multiverse
deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ karmic-updates multiverse
deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ karmic-updates multiverse

## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from the 'backports'
## repository.
## N.B. software from this repository may not have been tested as
## extensively as that contained in the main release, although it includes
## newer versions of some applications which may provide useful features.
## Also, please note that software in backports WILL NOT receive any review
## or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
# deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ karmic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ karmic-backports main restricted universe multiverse

## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from Canonical's
## 'partner' repository.
## This software is not part of Ubuntu, but is offered by Canonical and the
## respective vendors as a service to Ubuntu users.
# deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu karmic partner
# deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu karmic partner

deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu karmic-security main restricted
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu karmic-security main restricted
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu karmic-security universe
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu karmic-security universe
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu karmic-security multiverse
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu karmic-security multiverse

Then run

aptitude update

to update the apt package database and

aptitude safe-upgrade

to install the latest updates (if there are any). If you see that a new kernel gets installed as part of the updates, you should reboot the system afterwards:

reboot

 

9 Change The Default Shell

/bin/sh is a symlink to /bin/dash, however we need /bin/bash, not /bin/dash. Therefore we do this:

dpkg-reconfigure dash

Install dash as /bin/sh? <-- No

If you don't do this, the ISPConfig installation will fail.

 

10 Disable AppArmor

AppArmor is a security extension (similar to SELinux) that should provide extended security. In my opinion you don't need it to configure a secure system, and it usually causes more problems than advantages (think of it after you have done a week of trouble-shooting because some service wasn't working as expected, and then you find out that everything was ok, only AppArmor was causing the problem). Therefore I disable it (this is a must if you want to install ISPConfig later on).

We can disable it like this:

/etc/init.d/apparmor stop
update-rc.d -f apparmor remove
aptitude remove apparmor apparmor-utils


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Comments will be published after administrator approval.
Submitted by Morons (registered user) on Wed, 2010-04-28 14:39.

From https://help.ubuntu.com/community/AppArmor

Disable AppArmor framework

Systems should not generally need to have AppArmor disabled entirely. It is highly recommended that users leave AppArmor enabled and put the problematic profile into complain mode (see above), then file a bug using the procedures found in https://wiki.ubuntu.com/DebuggingApparmor. If AppArmor must be disabled (eg to use SELinux instead), users can:

sudo invoke-rc.d apparmor kill
sudo update-rc.d -f apparmor remove

On Ubuntu 8.04 (Hardy), Ubuntu 8.10 (Intrepid) and Ubuntu 9.04 (Jaunty):

sudo invoke-rc.d apparmor stop
sudo update-rc.d -f apparmor remove

Using kill with Ubuntu 8.10 or later gives the following error:

Killing AppArmor module - failed, AppArmor is builtin: Failed.

On Ubuntu 9.10 and later, you can either:

  • adjust your kernel boot command line (see /boot/grub/menul.lst for Grub or /boot/grub/grub.cfg for Grub 2) to include either

  • * 'apparmor=0'
  • * 'security=XXX' where XXX can be "" to disable AppArmor or an alternative LSM name, eg. 'security="selinux"'

  • remove the apparmor package with your package manager. Do not 'purge' apparmor if you think you might want to reenable AppArmor at a later date

Submitted by Vladimir Stanojevic (not registered) on Thu, 2010-02-25 12:57.
Out of words of praise for the author!!!
Submitted by Jamie Strandboge (not registered) on Mon, 2009-12-28 16:43.
I noticed that this tutorial recommends to disable all of AppArmor. Unless you have a very specific need to do so, this is not recommended. The apparmor profiles shipped in Ubuntu are designed to work with the default installation. If a particular profile is causing you trouble, please disable the profile or put it in complain mode, and leave the other profiles that are not causing problems to do their jobs. Better yet, file a bug. :) See my blog entry athttp://penguindroppings.wordpress.com/2009/07/07/should-i-disable-apparmor/ for details.
Submitted by ree (not registered) on Wed, 2009-12-30 14:35.

hi,

Jamie S. is right. Do not do it. And one thing more: I prefer 8.x LTS over 9.10

regards

Submitted by Anonymous (not registered) on Tue, 2010-03-09 19:51.

You did everything, byut you should really explain on how to install and configure IspConfig...

All that you did is that you linked to their official documentation, and their official documentation is linking bacck to this tutorial and now I am lost... I did everything but i cannot install ispconfig... since there isn't a documentation on how to do it...