Installing And Using The Unbound Name Server On Debian Etch

Want to support HowtoForge? Become a subscriber!
 
Submitted by falko (Contact Author) (Forums) on Tue, 2008-05-27 17:18. :: Debian | DNS

Installing And Using The Unbound Name Server On Debian Etch

Version 1.0
Author: Falko Timme <ft [at] falkotimme [dot] com>
Last edited 05/22/2008

Unbound is a validating, recursive, and caching DNS resolver, released under a BSD license. Version 1.0.0 was released on May 20, 2008. This tutorial explains how to install and use it on Debian Etch, including the creation of zones for your own domains.

This document comes without warranty of any kind! I want to say that this is not the only way of setting up such a system. There are many ways of achieving this goal but this is the way I take. I do not issue any guarantee that this will work for you!

 

1 Installing Unbound

Because there's no Debian package available yet, we have to install Unbound from the sources. First we install the prerequisites:

apt-get install build-essential libssl-dev

Then we download and install Unbound as follows:

cd /tmp
wget http://www.unbound.net/downloads/unbound-latest.tar.gz
tar xvfz unbound-latest.tar.gz
cd unbound-1.0.0/
./configure
make
make install

Next we create a user and group called unbound:

groupadd unbound
useradd -d /var/unbound -m -g unbound -s /bin/false unbound

We will use the directory /var/unbound as the home directory of the Unbound name server - it will contain the Unbound configuration, and Unbound will run chrooted in it for security reasons.

Next we download the list of root name servers:

cd /var/unbound
wget ftp://ftp.internic.net/domain/named.cache

Then we create the directory /var/unbound/var/run which will hold the Unbound PID file, unbound.pid, and create a symlink /var/run/unbound.pid to it:

mkdir -p /var/unbound/var/run
chown -R unbound:unbound /var/unbound
ln -s /var/unbound/var/run/unbound.pid /var/run/unbound.pid

To start/stop/restart Unbound, we need an init script like this one:

vi /etc/init.d/unbound

#!/bin/sh
#
# unbound        This shell script takes care of starting and stopping
#                unbound (DNS server).

exec="/usr/local/sbin/unbound"
prog="unbound"
config="/var/unbound/unbound.conf"
pidfile="/var/run/unbound.pid"
rootdir="/var/unbound"

case "$1" in
    start)
        [ -x $exec ] || exit 5
        [ -f $config ] || exit 6
        echo -n $"Starting $prog: "

        # setup root jail
        if [ -s /etc/localtime ]; then
            [ -d ${rootdir}/etc ] || mkdir -p ${rootdir}/etc ;
            if [ ! -e ${rootdir}/etc/localtime ] || /usr/bin/cmp -s /etc/localtime ${rootdir}/etc/localtime; then
                cp -fp /etc/localtime ${rootdir}/etc/localtime
            fi;
        fi;
        if [ -s /etc/resolv.conf ]; then
            [ -d ${rootdir}/etc ] || mkdir -p ${rootdir}/etc ;
            if [ ! -e ${rootdir}/etc/resolv.conf ] || /usr/bin/cmp -s /etc/resolv.conf ${rootdir}/etc/resolv.conf; then
                cp -fp /etc/resolv.conf ${rootdir}/etc/resolv.conf
            fi;
        fi;
        if ! egrep -q '^/[^[:space:]]+[[:space:]]+'${rootdir}'/dev/log' /proc/mounts; then
            [ -d ${rootdir}/dev ] || mkdir -p ${rootdir}/dev ;
            [ -e ${rootdir}/dev/log ] || touch ${rootdir}/dev/log
            mount --bind -n /dev/log ${rootdir}/dev/log >/dev/null 2>&1;
        fi;
        if ! egrep -q '^/[^[:space:]]+[[:space:]]+'${rootdir}'/dev/random' /proc/mounts; then
            [ -d ${rootdir}/dev ] || mkdir -p ${rootdir}/dev ;
            [ -e ${rootdir}/dev/random ] || touch ${rootdir}/dev/random
            mount --bind -n /dev/random ${rootdir}/dev/random >/dev/null 2>&1;
        fi;

        # if not running, start it up here
        start-stop-daemon --start --quiet --pidfile $pidfile --exec $exec -- -c $config
        echo
        ;;

    stop)
        echo -n $"Stopping $prog: "
        start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --oknodo --pidfile $pidfile
        echo
        if egrep -q '^/[^[:space:]]+[[:space:]]+'${rootdir}'/dev/log' /proc/mounts; then
            umount ${rootdir}/dev/log >/dev/null 2>&1
        fi;
        if egrep -q '^/[^[:space:]]+[[:space:]]+'${rootdir}'/dev/random' /proc/mounts; then
            umount ${rootdir}/dev/random >/dev/null 2>&1
        fi;
        ;;

    restart)
        start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --oknodo --pidfile $pidfile
        start-stop-daemon --start --quiet --pidfile $pidfile --exec $exec -- -c $config
        ;;

    reload)
        start-stop-daemon --stop --signal 1 --quiet --oknodo --pidfile $pidfile --exec $exec
        ;;

    force_reload)
        start-stop-daemon --stop --signal 1 --quiet --oknodo --pidfile $pidfile --exec $exec
        ;;

    *)
        echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|restart|reload|force-reload}"
        exit 2
        ;;
esac

exit 0

Make the script executable and create the system startup links for it:

chmod 755 /etc/init.d/unbound
update-rc.d unbound defaults

That's it for the installation.

 

2 Configuring Unbound

Now we create the Unbound configuration file, /var/unbound/unbound.conf. You can find a sample configuration file in /tmp/unbound-1.0.0/doc/example.conf which has lots of explanations in it. You can also visit http://www.unbound.net/documentation/unbound.conf.html to learn more about the Unbound configuration.

In the following configuration, I add two zones for domains (example.com and example.net) that I want to host on the Unbound name server. If you are familiar with the BIND name server, you can learn the Unbound syntax very fast. Adjust the zones to your needs, or leave them out if you only need a local resolver:

vi /var/unbound/unbound.conf

server:
        verbosity: 1
        interface: 0.0.0.0
        port: 53
        do-ip4: yes
        do-ip6: yes
        do-udp: yes
        do-tcp: yes
        do-daemonize: yes
        access-control: 0.0.0.0/0 allow
        #access-control: 0.0.0.0/0 refuse
        #access-control: 127.0.0.0/8 allow
        chroot: "/var/unbound"
        username: "unbound"
        directory: "/var/unbound"
        use-syslog: yes
        pidfile: "/var/run/unbound.pid"
        root-hints: "/var/unbound/named.cache"

        local-zone: "example.com." static
        local-data: "example.com. 86400 IN NS ns1.hostingcompany.com."
        local-data: "example.com. 86400 IN NS ns2.hostingcompany.com."
        local-data: "example.com. 86400 IN SOA ns1.hostingcompany.com. hostmaster.hostingcompany.com. 2008052201 28800 7200 604800 86400"
        local-data: "example.com. 86400 IN A 1.2.3.4"
        local-data: "www.example.com. 86400 IN CNAME example.com."
        local-data: "mail.example.com. 86400 IN A 1.2.3.4"
        local-data: "example.com. 86400 IN MX 10 mail.example.com."
        local-data: "example.com. 86400 IN TXT v=spf1 a mx ~all"

        local-zone: "example.net." static
        local-data: "example.net. 86400 IN NS ns1.hostingcompany.com."
        local-data: "example.net. 86400 IN NS ns2.hostingcompany.com."
        local-data: "example.net. 86400 IN SOA ns1.hostingcompany.com. hostmaster.hostingcompany.com. 2008052201 28800 7200 604800 86400"
        local-data: "example.net. 86400 IN A 1.2.3.4"
        local-data: "www.example.net. 86400 IN CNAME example.net."
        local-data: "mail.example.net. 86400 IN A 1.2.3.4"
        local-data: "example.net. 86400 IN MX 10 mail.example.net."
        local-data: "example.net. 86400 IN TXT v=spf1 a mx ~all"

I've used interface: 0.0.0.0 here which means that Unbound listens on all network interfaces, and access-control: 0.0.0.0/0 allow which means that anybody can connect to Unbound. If you just want localhost to be allowed to connect, for example, you'd use

[...]
        access-control: 0.0.0.0/0 refuse
        access-control: 127.0.0.0/8 allow
[...]

instead.

To check if the syntax of your Unbound configuration is correct, you can use the unbound-checkconf command:

unbound-checkconf /var/unbound/unbound.conf

server1:~# unbound-checkconf /var/unbound/unbound.conf
unbound-checkconf: no errors in /var/unbound/unbound.conf
server1:~#

If the syntax is ok, you can finally start Unbound:

/etc/init.d/unbound start

To learn more about Unbound, please refer to the Unbound documentation.

 

3 Links


Please do not use the comment function to ask for help! If you need help, please use our forum.
Comments will be published after administrator approval.