How To Install KVM And libvirt On CentOS 6.2 With Bridged Networking

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Submitted by eduardo.lago.aguiar (Contact Author) (Forums) on Wed, 2012-02-29 14:25. :: CentOS | KVM | Virtualization

How To Install KVM And libvirt On CentOS 6.2 With Bridged Networking

This tutorial describes how to install the KVM hypervisor and libvirt virtualization library on Linux CentOS 6.2. At the end of this guide you will have a CentOS box (name it host) with the following capabilities:

  • virtualization capacity: chance for multiple guests (Linux/Windows) running and sharing the host's hardware 
  • bridge network configuration: you'll be able to directly access to the guests as if they were physical machines on the same LAN and viceversa.
  • visual management: using virt-manager (I use Ubuntu 11.10 in this howto) you will be able to remotely admin the virtual machines on the CentOS host.

 

What's what?

KVM:

"KVM (for Kernel-based Virtual Machine) is a full virtualization solution for Linux on x86 hardware containing virtualization extensions (Intel VT or AMD-V). It consists of a loadable kernel module, kvm.ko, that provides the core virtualization infrastructure and a processor specific module, kvm-intel.ko or kvm-amd.ko..."

"Using KVM, one can run multiple virtual machines running unmodified Linux or Windows images. Each virtual machine has private virtualized hardware: a network card, disk, graphics adapter, etc."

 

libvirt:

  • "A toolkit to interact with the virtualization capabilities of recent versions of Linux... "
  • "A Free software available under the GNU Lesser General Public License."
  • "A long term stable C API"
  • "A set of bindings for common languages"

 

Intel-VT and AMD-V

 

Requirements

  • Hardware:
    • Processor with support for Intel-VT or AMD-V technology
    • Plenty RAM memory depending on the number of guests
    • Network connectivity
  • Software:
    • A previosly installed Linux CentOS 6.2 with a recent Linux kernel. On this how to:

      $ uname -r

      2.6.32-220.2.1.el6.x86_64

      $ lsb_release -a

      LSB Version: :core-4.0-amd64:core-4.0-noarch:graphics-4.0-amd64:graphics-4.0-noarch:printing-4.0-amd64:printing-4.0-noarch
      Distributor ID: CentOS
      Description: CentOS release 6.2 (Final)
      Release: 6.2
      Codename: Final

    • A Linux client with a Desktop environment installed
    • An available CentOS mirror/repository

 

Installation Steps

  1. Log into the CentOS as bozz user (a sudoer user) and check if your hardware support for  virtualization extensions, on my hardware it was:
  2. $ egrep '^flags.*(vmx|svm)' /proc/cpuinfo

    flags : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush dts acpi mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht tm pbe syscall nx rdtscp lm constant_tsc arch_perfmon pebs bts rep_good xtopology nonstop_tsc aperfmperf pni dtes64 monitor ds_cpl vmx est tm2 ssse3 cx16 xtpr pdcm sse4_1 sse4_2 popcnt lahf_lm ida dts tpr_shadow vnmi flexpriority ept vpid
    flags : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush dts acpi mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht tm pbe syscall nx rdtscp lm constant_tsc arch_perfmon pebs bts rep_good xtopology nonstop_tsc aperfmperf pni dtes64 monitor ds_cpl vmx est tm2 ssse3 cx16 xtpr pdcm sse4_1 sse4_2 popcnt lahf_lm ida dts tpr_shadow vnmi flexpriority ept vpid
    flags : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush dts acpi mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht tm pbe syscall nx rdtscp lm constant_tsc arch_perfmon pebs bts rep_good xtopology nonstop_tsc aperfmperf pni dtes64 monitor ds_cpl vmx est tm2 ssse3 cx16 xtpr pdcm sse4_1 sse4_2 popcnt lahf_lm ida dts tpr_shadow vnmi flexpriority ept vpid
    flags : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush dts acpi mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht tm pbe syscall nx rdtscp lm constant_tsc arch_perfmon pebs bts rep_good xtopology nonstop_tsc aperfmperf pni dtes64 monitor ds_cpl vmx est tm2 ssse3 cx16 xtpr pdcm sse4_1 sse4_2 popcnt lahf_lm ida dts tpr_shadow vnmi flexpriority ept vpid
    flags : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush dts acpi mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht tm pbe syscall nx rdtscp lm constant_tsc arch_perfmon pebs bts rep_good xtopology nonstop_tsc aperfmperf pni dtes64 monitor ds_cpl vmx est tm2 ssse3 cx16 xtpr pdcm sse4_1 sse4_2 popcnt lahf_lm ida dts tpr_shadow vnmi flexpriority ept vpid
    flags : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush dts acpi mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht tm pbe syscall nx rdtscp lm constant_tsc arch_perfmon pebs bts rep_good xtopology nonstop_tsc aperfmperf pni dtes64 monitor ds_cpl vmx est tm2 ssse3 cx16 xtpr pdcm sse4_1 sse4_2 popcnt lahf_lm ida dts tpr_shadow vnmi flexpriority ept vpid
    flags : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush dts acpi mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht tm pbe syscall nx rdtscp lm constant_tsc arch_perfmon pebs bts rep_good xtopology nonstop_tsc aperfmperf pni dtes64 monitor ds_cpl vmx est tm2 ssse3 cx16 xtpr pdcm sse4_1 sse4_2 popcnt lahf_lm ida dts tpr_shadow vnmi flexpriority ept vpid
    flags : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush dts acpi mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht tm pbe syscall nx rdtscp lm constant_tsc arch_perfmon pebs bts rep_good xtopology nonstop_tsc aperfmperf pni dtes64 monitor ds_cpl vmx est tm2 ssse3 cx16 xtpr pdcm sse4_1 sse4_2 popcnt lahf_lm ida dts tpr_shadow vnmi flexpriority ept vpid

  3. Install kvm and libvirt packages:

    $ sudo yum install kvm libvirt

  4. Update both packages to the latest version available on repositories/mirrors:

    $ sudo yum update libvirt kvm

    $ yum info libvirt

    Installed Packages
    Name        : libvirt
    Arch        : x86_64
    Version     : 0.9.4
    Release     : 23.el6_2.4

    $ yum info qemu-kvm

    Installed Packages
    Name        : qemu-kvm
    Arch        : x86_64
    Epoch       : 2
    Version     : 0.12.1.2
    Release     : 2.209.el6_2.1

  5. Restart the libvirtd daemon:

    $ sudo service libvirtd restart

  6. Verify if the kvm module is loaded, you should see amd or intel depending on the hardware:

    $ lsmod | grep kvm

    kvm_intel              50380  0
    kvm                   305113  1 kvm_intel

  7. Issue a virsh command to ensure local root connectivity first:

    $ sudo virsh sysinfo

    <sysinfo type="smbios">
    ...

  8. [OPTIONAL] To use KVM by a non-root user verify if kvm group was created on installation:

    $ cat /etc/group | grep kvm

    kvm:x:36:qemu

    Then add the bozz user to kvm group, so it can gain access to hypervisor:

    $ sudo usermod -a -G kvm bozz
    $ logout

    Login again as the bozz user and verify kvm's membership:

    $ id

    uid=500(bozz) gid=500(bozz) groups=500(bozz),10(wheel),36(kvm) context=...

    and verify if /dev/kvm is owned by group kvm:

    $ ls -l /dev/kvm

    crw-rw-rw-. 1 root kvm 10, 232 Jan 17 14:50 /dev/kvm

    On a system that runs udev, you will probably need to add the following line in your udev configuration so it will automatically give the right group to the newly created device:

    $ cat /etc/udev/rules.d/80-kvm.rules

    KERNEL=="kvm", GROUP="kvm", MODE="0666"

  9. To manage libvirt with a non-root account you should use PolicyKit. Define access control for a libvirt group:

    $ sudo groupadd libvirt
    $ sudo usermod -a -G libvirt bozz
    $ logout

    Login again as bozz user and edit a new archive:

    $ sudo nano /etc/polkit-1/localauthority/50-local.d/50-libvirt-remote-access.pkla

    with this content:

    [libvirt Management Access]
    # For allowing access to specific user only:
    #Identity=unix-user:bozz
    # For allowing access to a group (like this guide):
    Identity=unix-group:libvirt
    Action=org.libvirt.unix.manage
    ResultAny=yes
    ResultInactive=yes
    ResultActive=yes
    

    Restart libvirtd daemon:

    $ sudo service libvirtd restart

    Verify if bozz user can locally access to qemu:///system (NOTE: the use of qemu:///session is discouraged):

    $ virsh -c qemu:///system sysinfo

    <sysinfo type="smbios">
    ...

    Verify if bozz user can remotely access to qemu+ssh://bozz@SERVER/system too. So on the Linux client issue:

    For Ubuntu client (like in this guide):

    $ sudo apt-get install libvirt-bin

    For CentOS client:

    $ sudo yum install libvirt

    Then:

    $ virsh -c qemu+ssh://bozz@SERVER/system sysinfo

    <sysinfo type="smbios">
    ...

    Change group ownership and permissions on the default images directory:

    $ sudo chown root:libvirt /var/lib/libvirt/images
    $ sudo chmod g+rw /var/lib/libvirt/images

  10. [OPTIONAL] When libvirtd (>= 0.9.3) is running as non-root it tries to read ~/.libvirt/libvirtd.conf (see here). A workaround is: 

    $ mkdir -p ~/.libvirt
    $ touch ~/.libvirt/libvirtd.conf

    Then issue a virsh command as bozz user:

    $ virsh list

     Id Name                 State
    ----------------------------------

  11. Configure Bridged Network by creating a new network script at /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-br0:

    $ sudo nano /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-br0

    and configuring the parameters according to your LAN settings (NOTE: options are case sensitive i.e. Bridge and bridge are two different options):

    DEVICE="br0"
    TYPE=Bridge
    DELAY=0
    ONBOOT="yes"
    BOOTPROTO=static
    IPADDR=192.168.11.12
    NETMASK=255.255.255.0
    NETWORK=192.168.11.0
    GATEWAY=192.168.11.1
    DNS1=192.168.11.2
    PEERDNS="yes"
    NM_CONTROLLED=no
    

    Then edit the Ethernet network script /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0:

    $ sudo nano /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0

    with the following content (NOTE: the hardware address depends on your NIC, an arbitrary MAC address is used here):

    DEVICE="eth0"
    HWADDR="00:2C:C2:85:29:A3"
    ONBOOT="yes"
    BRIDGE=br0
    NM_CONTROLLED=no
    

    Restart the networking service:

    $ sudo service network restart

    and verify the bridge config:

    $ brctl show

    bridge name bridge id STP enabled interfaces
    br0 8000.002cc28529a3 no eth0
    ...

    Configure iptables to allow all traffic to be forwarded across the bridge:

    $ sudo iptables -I FORWARD -m physdev --physdev-is-bridged -j ACCEPT
    $ sudo service iptables save
    $ sudo service iptables restart

    Prevent bridged traffic from being processed by iptables rules, this improves the bridge’s performance. In /etc/sysctl.conf append the following lines:

    net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 0
    net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 0
    net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-arptables = 0

    Reload the kernel parameters configured with sysctl:

    $ sudo sysctl -p /etc/sysctl.conf

    Restart the libvirt daemon:

    $ sudo service libvirtd reload


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Submitted by Anonymous (not registered) on Fri, 2012-05-18 13:50.
Try http://www.webvirtmgr.net very nice service for managing virtual machines