Hi all, I have been googling, and asking rapidssl for help. no luck so far! I have not been able to get any of the mail clients to work with smtp and tls. I can't seem to find the right "fit" with regards to putting in the certificates together. from all the posts on google, it seems that you have to put in the root certificate as well? smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/ssl/smtp.pplsnet.com.rsa.key smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/ssl/smtp.pplsnet.com.PUBLIC.key smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/ssl/combo.csr.key first is the private key that i created 2nd is the public key that i got from Rapidssl third key has been done in so many combos! its several keys in one. 1. - private key (tried with and without) 2. - rapidssl intermediate keys 3, and on the bottom of the file is the rapidssl root cert. now when i use openssl to connect and point to the root key, everything works, BUT, see, mail clients have their own root keys, so i've been told to make sure to have the root key imbedded into the "smtpd_tls_CAfile". sooo i'm confused, but the mail clients don't seem to find it. any help????