13 Set MySQL Passwords And Configure phpMyAdmin
Set passwords for the MySQL root account:
[root@server1 tmp]# mysql_secure_installation
NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MySQL
SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE! PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY!
In order to log into MySQL to secure it, we'll need the current
password for the root user. If you've just installed MySQL, and
you haven't set the root password yet, the password will be blank,
so you should just press enter here.
Enter current password for root (enter for none):
OK, successfully used password, moving on...
Setting the root password ensures that nobody can log into the MySQL
root user without the proper authorisation.
Set root password? [Y/n] <-- ENTER
New password: <-- yourrootsqlpassword
Re-enter new password: <-- yourrootsqlpassword
Password updated successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
By default, a MySQL installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MySQL without having to have a user account created for
them. This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother. You should remove them before moving into a
Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] <-- ENTER
Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'. This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.
Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] <-- ENTER
By default, MySQL comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can
access. This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.
Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] <-- ENTER
- Dropping test database...
- Removing privileges on test database...
Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.
Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] <-- ENTER
All done! If you've completed all of the above steps, your MySQL
installation should now be secure.
Thanks for using MySQL!
Now we configure phpMyAdmin. We change the Apache configuration so that phpMyAdmin allows connections not just from localhost (by commenting out the <Directory "/usr/share/phpmyadmin"> stanza):
# Web application to manage MySQL
# Order Deny,Allow
# Deny from all
# Allow from 127.0.0.1
Alias /phpmyadmin /usr/share/phpmyadmin
Alias /phpMyAdmin /usr/share/phpmyadmin
Alias /mysqladmin /usr/share/phpmyadmin
Next we change the authentication in phpMyAdmin from cookie to http:
/* Authentication type */
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['auth_type'] = 'http';
Then we create the system startup links for Apache and start it:
chkconfig --levels 235 httpd on
Now you can direct your browser to http://server1.example.com/phpmyadmin/ or http://192.168.0.100/phpmyadmin/ and log in with the user name root and your new root MySQL password.
14 Install Amavisd-new, SpamAssassin And ClamAV
To install amavisd-new, spamassassin and clamav, run the following command:
yum install amavisd-new spamassassin clamav clamd unzip bzip2 unrar perl-DBD-mysql
Then we start freshclam, amavisd, and clamd.amavisd:
chkconfig --levels 235 amavisd on
chkconfig --del clamd
chkconfig --levels 235 clamd.amavisd on
15 Installing Apache2 With mod_php, mod_fcgi/PHP5, And suPHP
ISPConfig 3 allows you to use mod_php, mod_fcgi/PHP5, cgi/PHP5, and suPHP on a per website basis.
We can install Apache2with mod_php5, mod_fcgid, and PHP5 as follows:
yum install php php-devel php-gd php-imap php-ldap php-mysql php-odbc php-pear php-xml php-xmlrpc php-pecl-apc php-mbstring php-mcrypt php-mssql php-snmp php-soap php-tidy curl curl-devel perl-libwww-perl ImageMagick libxml2 libxml2-devel mod_fcgid php-cli httpd-devel
Next we open /etc/php.ini...
... and change the error reporting (so that notices aren't shown any longer) and uncomment cgi.fix_pathinfo=1:
;error_reporting = E_ALL & ~E_DEPRECATED
error_reporting = E_ALL & ~E_NOTICE
; cgi.fix_pathinfo provides *real* PATH_INFO/PATH_TRANSLATED support for CGI. PHP's
; previous behaviour was to set PATH_TRANSLATED to SCRIPT_FILENAME, and to not grok
; what PATH_INFO is. For more information on PATH_INFO, see the cgi specs. Setting
; this to 1 will cause PHP CGI to fix its paths to conform to the spec. A setting
; of zero causes PHP to behave as before. Default is 1. You should fix your scripts
; to use SCRIPT_FILENAME rather than PATH_TRANSLATED.
Next we install suPHP (there is a mod_suphp package available in the repositories, but unfortunately it isn't compatible with ISPConfig, therefore we have to build suPHP ourselves):
tar xvfz suphp-0.7.1.tar.gz
./configure --prefix=/usr --sysconfdir=/etc --with-apr=/usr/bin/apr-1-config --with-apxs=/usr/sbin/apxs --with-apache-user=apache --with-setid-mode=owner --with-php=/usr/bin/php-cgi --with-logfile=/var/log/httpd/suphp_log --enable-SUPHP_USE_USERGROUP=yes
Then we add the suPHP module to our Apache configuration...
LoadModule suphp_module modules/mod_suphp.so
... and create the file /etc/suphp.conf as follows:
;Path to logfile
;User Apache is running as
;Path all scripts have to be in
;Path to chroot() to before executing script
; Security options
;Check wheter script is within DOCUMENT_ROOT
;Send minor error messages to browser
;PATH environment variable
;Umask to set, specify in octal notation
; Minimum UID
; Minimum GID
;Handler for php-scripts
;Handler for CGI-scripts
Finally we restart Apache:
Starting with version 3.0.3, ISPConfig 3 has built-in support for Ruby. Instead of using CGI/FastCGI, ISPConfig depends on mod_ruby being available in the server's Apache.
For CentOS 6.3, there's no mod_ruby package available, so we must compile it ourselves. First we install some prerequisites:
yum install httpd-devel ruby ruby-devel
Next we download and install mod_ruby as follows:
tar zxvf mod_ruby-1.3.0.tar.gz
Finally we must add the mod_ruby module to the Apache configuration, so we create the file /etc/httpd/conf.d/ruby.conf...
LoadModule ruby_module modules/mod_ruby.so
... and restart Apache:
(If you leave out the RubyAddPath /1.8 directive, you will see errors like the following ones in Apache's error log when you call Ruby files:
[Thu May 26 02:05:05 2011] [error] mod_ruby: ruby:0:in `require': no such file to load -- apache/ruby-run (LoadError)
[Thu May 26 02:05:05 2011] [error] mod_ruby: failed to require apache/ruby-run
[Thu May 26 02:05:05 2011] [error] mod_ruby: error in ruby
To install mod_python, we simply run...
yum install mod_python
... and restart Apache afterwards:
WebDAV should already be enabled, but to check this, open /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf and make sure that the following three modules are active:
LoadModule auth_digest_module modules/mod_auth_digest.so
LoadModule dav_module modules/mod_dav.so
LoadModule dav_fs_module modules/mod_dav_fs.so
If you have to modify /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf, don't forget to restart Apache afterwards:
16 Install PureFTPd
PureFTPd can be installed with the following command:
yum install pure-ftpd
Then create the system startup links and start PureFTPd:
chkconfig --levels 235 pure-ftpd on
Now we configure PureFTPd to allow FTP and TLS sessions. FTP is a very insecure protocol because all passwords and all data are transferred in clear text. By using TLS, the whole communication can be encrypted, thus making FTP much more secure.
OpenSSL is needed by TLS; to install OpenSSL, we simply run:
yum install openssl
If you want to allow FTP and TLS sessions, set TLS to 1:
# This option can accept three values :
# 0 : disable SSL/TLS encryption layer (default).
# 1 : accept both traditional and encrypted sessions.
# 2 : refuse connections that don't use SSL/TLS security mechanisms,
# including anonymous sessions.
# Do _not_ uncomment this blindly. Be sure that :
# 1) Your server has been compiled with SSL/TLS support (--with-tls),
# 2) A valid certificate is in place,
# 3) Only compatible clients will log in.
In order to use TLS, we must create an SSL certificate. I create it in /etc/ssl/private/, therefore I create that directory first:
mkdir -p /etc/ssl/private/
Afterwards, we can generate the SSL certificate as follows:
openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 7300 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout /etc/ssl/private/pure-ftpd.pem -out /etc/ssl/private/pure-ftpd.pem
Country Name (2 letter code) [XX]: <-- Enter your Country Name (e.g., "DE").
State or Province Name (full name) : <-- Enter your State or Province Name.
Locality Name (eg, city) [Default City]: <-- Enter your City.
Organization Name (eg, company) [Default Company Ltd]: <-- Enter your Organization Name (e.g., the name of your company).
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) : <-- Enter your Organizational Unit Name (e.g. "IT Department").
Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) : <-- Enter the Fully Qualified Domain Name of the system (e.g. "server1.example.com").
Email Address : <-- Enter your Email Address.
Change the permissions of the SSL certificate:
chmod 600 /etc/ssl/private/pure-ftpd.pem
Finally restart PureFTPd:
That's it. You can now try to connect using your FTP client; however, you should configure your FTP client to use TLS.