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Step-By-Step Configuration of NAT with iptables
This tutorial shows how to set up network-address-translation (NAT) on a Linux system with iptables rules so that the system can act as a gateway and provide internet access to multiple hosts on a local network using a single public IP address. This is achieved by rewriting the source and/or destination addresses of IP packets as they pass through the NAT system.
To start the X server from a text mode session, execute the command:
How do I find out if a remote system is still alive, if certain services are running, which processes are running, etc.?
You can use ping to see if the system is alive:
ping -c4 <system's IP address>
To see if a certain service is still alive, use the telnet command:
telnet <system's IP address> 25 (for SMTP)
telnet <system's IP address> 80 (for HTTP)
telnet <system's IP address> 110 (for POP3)
You can login to the system using SSH (port 22) (use PuTTY if you are on a Windows PC; PuTTY is an SSH client for Windows), and when you are on the system, you have a few useful tools to gather more information:
Either with chkrootkit or with rkhunter.
Either install the package that comes with your distribution (on Debian you would run
apt-get install chkrootkit
), or download the sources from www.chkrootkit.org and install manually:
wget --passive-ftp ftp://ftp.pangeia.com.br/pub/seg/pac/chkrootkit.tar.gz
Afterwards, you can move the chkrootkit directory somewhere else, e.g. /usr/local/chkrootkit:
shows a list for both users and groups.
shows a list for users,
a list for groups.
How can I set a limit as to how much space is available for a web site I put on my server? Like it is limited to 50 MB of space.
First, you have to enable quota on your system. Have a look at the quota section of the appropriate "Perfect Setup" tutorial for your distribution on HowtoForge.
After you've enabled quota on your system:
To set quotas for a user or group, use the setquota command (see
for more information), e.g.:
setquota -g $group $blocks $blocks 0 0 -a
Replace $group, $username and $blocks. Note: $blocks is the quota size in MB * 1024! To deactivate quotas for a user or group, run these commands and set $blocks to 0.
On a standard SuSE 8.2 installation the quota module is not loaded into the kernel which is why
gives back an error.
Load the quota module manually with
To have those modules loaded on every bootup of the system please insert