It just keeps getting better and better.
I created another unpriviledged account on the source server. It has no .ssh directory. I then ran the rsync command:
rsync -avz -e "ssh -i/root/rysnc/scflf005-rsync-key" sync2@scflf001:/etc/squid/lists/ /etc/squid/lists/
It asked for the password for sync2. When I entered it the files sync'd.
The key I generated was for root on scflf005 and that is the account I issued the rsync command from. It appears it ignored the whole key thing and granted the sync based upon the sync2 password.
I then copied the passwordless public key (same one as before) to sync2@scflf001:/home/.ssh
and copied it to authorized_keys (cat >> authorized_keys). Added a line to one of the lists and reran the command. It sync'd without asking for a password.
This leads me to believe that the problem for me is either in my checkrsync file or what I am prepending to the public key.
Thanks for your continued support! I'll add the peices a little at a time to see where it breaks.